Thursday, August 24, 2017

Botanists Alexander Garden & John Bartram Meet

Scottish physician, botanist and zoologist, Dr. Alexander Garden 1730-1791 of Charleston wrote of a visit to Bartram in 1754: 

His garden is a perfect portraiture of himself, here you meet with a row of rare plants almost covered over with weeds, here with a Beautifull Shrub, even Luxuriant Amongst Briars, and in another corner an Elegant & Lofty tree lost in common thicket. On our way from town to his house he carried me to severall rocks & Dens where he spewed me some of his rare plants, which he had brought from the Mountains &c. In a word he disclaims to have a garden less than Pensylvania & Every den is an Arbour, Every run of water, a Canal, & every small level Spot a Parterre, where he nurses up some of his Idol Flowers & cultivates his darling productions. He had many plants whose names he did not know, most or all of which I had seen & knew them. On the other hand he had several I had not seen & some I never heard of...

Sunday, August 20, 2017

The Fate of John Bartram's Botanic Garden

As John Bartram tended his garden, he established a family institution that survived him & grew under the care of three generations of his family. Following the American Revolution, Bartram’s sons John Bartram, Jr. & William Bartram, continued the international plant trade their father had established, & expanded the family botanic garden & nursery business.
William Bartram, 1739-1823 by Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 1808

William Bartram was an important naturalist, artist, & author in his own right, & traveled the American South from 1773-1776 under the patronage of Dr. John Fothergill. William Bartram’s Travels… published in Philadelphia in 1791, & reissued in a number of European editions, strengthened the connection between the name Bartram & the science of plants in North America. Under William Bartram the garden became an educational center & helped to train a new generation of natural scientists & explorers. In the early Federal history of the United States the Bartram Botanic Garden served as the American botanic garden in lieu of any official institution in Philadelphia.

After 1812, Ann Bartram Carr, a daughter of John Bartram, Jr., continued the family garden. Ann B. Carr had been educated by her uncle, William Bartram, & inherited his skill for illustration & the family passion for plants. With her husband Colonel Robert Carr & his son John Bartram Carr the international trade in seeds & plants was continued from Bartram’s Garden & the site was enlarged as a commercial nursery. At its peak the garden featured ten greenhouses & a collection of over 1400 native plant species, & as many as 1000 species of exotics, many under glass.

Financial difficulties led to the sale of the family garden by the last of the Bartram descendents in 1850. The new owner Andrew M. Eastwick, a wealthy railroad industrialist, preserved the historic garden as a private park on his estate. At Eastwick’s death in 1879, the garden site was threatened by the expansion of the city of Philadelphia & the movement of industry to the lower Schuylkill. A campaign to preserve the garden was organized by the nurseryman & writer, Thomas Meehan, in Philadelphia, & Charles S. Sargent of the Arnold Arboretum in Boston. In 1888, after a long political fight the historic garden was placed on the city plan & slated for preservation; in 1891, control of the site was turned over to the City of Philadelphia. It has remained protected as a city park since then. Today, John Bartram’s House & Garden & part of his original plantation are preserved in a city park of approximately 45.5 acres, administered by the Fairmount Park Commission but maintained & interpreted by the John Bartram Association.

Historic American Landscapes Survey - John Bartram House and Garden by Joel T. Fry

Friday, August 18, 2017

Who Was John Bartram?

Some researchers this oil is probably of John Bartram in midlife, but the Bartram Association is skeptical.

John Bartram Born: 23-Mar-1699
Birthplace: Darby, PA
Died: 22-Sep-1777
Location of death: Philadelphia, PA
Cause of death: unspecified
Remains: Buried, Darby Friends Cemetery, Darby, PA

Gender: Male
Religion: Quaker
Occupation: Botanist

Colonial American botanist John Bartram was raised in a successful farming family, & developed a strong interest in agriculture as a child. In his adolescence he purchased books to learn about plants, & in his late 20s he purchased 107 acres near Philadelphia, where he built a stone house & established a botanical garden still tended & toured today. His expeditions collecting & cataloguing plant life in the Blue Ridge Mountains (1738), the Lake Ontario region (1751), the Catskills (1755), & the Carolinas (1760) brought him some contemporary respect, & in 1765 he was named Botanist to King George III.

He was a key supplier of seeds from the New World to Europe, a trade facilitated through decades of mailed packages & correspondence with English merchant Peter Collinson (1694-1768). His work as seed supplier led numerous members of European royalty to support Bartram with "subscriptions" -- financial support in exchange for seeds, bulbs, & cuttings. Among the plant species popularized through this work were Kalmias, Rhododendrons, & Magnolias. He was the 1st American to hybridize plants, & visitors to his home included George Washington & Thomas Jefferson. He was described by Carolus Linnaeus as "the greatest natural botanist in the world," while noted naturalist Cadwallader Colden was of a contrary opinion, & saw Bartram as merely a collector, not a true scientist, because Bartram eschewed systematic cataloguing of botanical information.

As a young man he owned several slaves, but he later had a radical change of heart, freeing his slaves & becoming an outspoken abolitionist. In 1758, Bartram was formally expelled from his Quaker congregation; after he refused to claim the divinity of Jesus Christ, but despite the church action Bartram continued attending Quaker services. His son, William Bartram, became a noted naturalist in his own right, & together the two Bartrams discovered the Franklinia flower, named for their friend Benjamin Franklin. The elder Bartram was a founding member of Franklin's American Philosophical Society.

Father: William Bartram (d. 22-Sep-1711 Indian attack)
Mother: Eliza Hunt Bartram (m. 24-Mar-1696, d. 21-Aug-1701 childbirth)
Brother: James Bartram (b. 6-Aug-1701)
Stepmother: Elizabeth Smith Bartram (stepmother, m. William Bartram 1707)
Half Sister: Elizabeth Bartram (stepsister, b. 30-Dec-1709)
Half Brother: William Bartram (stepbrother, b. 3-Apr-1711)
Stepfather: John Smith (stepfather, m. Elizabeth Smith Bartram 15-Sep-1715)

1st Wife: Mary Maris (or Morris) Bartram (b. 1703, m. 1723, d. Apr-1727, two sons)
Son: Richard Bartram (b. 24-May-1724, d. 19-Nov-1727)
Son: Isaac Bartram (chemist, b. 17-Sep-1725, d. Jun-1801)
2nd Wife: Ann Mendenhall Bartram (b. 22-Sep-1703, m. 11-Oct-1727, d. 29-Jan-1789, 5 sons, 4 daughters)
Son: James Bartram (farmer, b. 25-Jun-1730, d. 6-Jan-1824)
Son: Moses Bartram (b. 16-Jun-1732)
Daughter: Elizabeth Bartram (b. 27-Aug-1834, d. circa 1735)
Daughter: Mary Bartram Bonsall (b. 21-Sep-1736)
Son: William Bartram (naturalist, twin, b. 9-Feb-1739, d. 22-Jul-1823)
Daughter: Elizabeth Bartram Wright (twin, b. 9-Feb-1739)
Daughter: Ann Bartramborn Bartram (b. 24-Jun-1742)
Son: John Bartram, Jr. (naturalist, b. 24-Aug-1743)
Son: Benjamin Bartram (b. 6-Jul-1748)

    "Royal Botanist" to King George III (1765-76)

    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Foreign Member (1769)


    American Philosophical Society Founding member (1743)


   Collected seeds and plant specimens, establishing a trans­Atlantic hub of plant exploration through his exchanges with London merchant Peter Collinson


    Gathered the most varied collection of North American plants in the world


Writings:
Diary of a Journey through the Carolinas, Georgia & Florida (1742)
Observations on the Inhabitants, Climate, Soil, Rivers, Productions, Animals, & Other Matters Worthy of Notice ... from Pensilvania [sic] to Onondago, Oswego & the Lake Ontario, in Canada... (1751)
Description of East Florida, with a Journal (1769)

Monday, August 14, 2017

Bartram's Botanic Garden as it Exists Today

John Bartram's House

Bartram’s Garden is located on the west bank of the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in an area historically known as Kingsessing. The site of one of the earliest botanic gardens in North America, the Bartram house & garden are located on a natural terrace, rising 45' to 50' above the Schuylkill River. The well-watered terrace slopes downward toward the river, & has a southeasterly exposure overlooking a large area of floodplain. Within a small area of roughly eight to ten acres, the garden itself is bounded by low hills to the north & the south, which provided a variety of exposures. Portions of the garden soil are a deep sandy or silty loam, while others are poorly drained, dry, or even rocky. Historically, tidal flats & marshes were located to the north & south of the garden site, & several fresh-water springs & small streams were present in the garden & its near vicinity. John Bartram utilized a spring in the lower garden to cool a milk house & feed a small fresh water pond. The garden was the site of an historic river fishery that exploited the yearly runs of shad & other anadromous fish.

The source of this rich physical environment is the convergence of the Coastal Plain (or Inner Coastal Plain) & the Piedmont. The low, generally sandbased soils of the coastal plain butt up against the upland, rock-based soils of the piedmont. A major continental fault, the “Fall Line,” forms the boundary between these two provinces. 

Bartram's Garden Jan 1854

Trending to the northeast, the Fall Line generally marks the limits of tidewater navigation in the rivers of the eastern of North America. At Bartram’s Garden a small portion of the Fall Line is visible in the rock outcrop at the east edge of the garden. The complex interaction between soils from the coastal plain & piedmont results in a number of distinctive soils at Bartram’s Garden. It may well have been the distinctive soils & diverse microenvironments that led John Bartram to choose this site for his garden in 1728. 

Bartram's House c 1870. Photographer Robert Newell

Today's garden site is largely “wooded” at present with a dense canopy of trees & shrubs. A small number of these plants are historic survivors, but most are late 19C or 20C plantings—replacements for known historic trees, & more often as specimens of plants known or thought to have been in the Bartram collection. A number of wild seedlings have also become established, particularly in the borders of the park property, & in the northern meadow tract. 
Bartram's Mansion c 1870. Photographer Robert Newell

The present collection of plants is heavily biased toward trees & large shrubs, plants most adapted to survive neglect. Very few of the tender plants—annuals, biennials, & perennial herbaceous plants, & food & fruit plants that once made up the Bartram collection are now represented at the site.

Historic American Landscapes Survey - John Bartram House and Garden by Joel T. Fry

Friday, August 11, 2017

Seed Catalog from Cole's Seed Store, Pella, Iowa

Seed Catalog from Cole's Seed Store, Pella, Iowa

Aart Kool (1814-1892) married Heiltje-Hendrika "Henrietta" de Booy (1824-1901) in Pella, Iowa in 1848. Kool arrived in Pella, Iowa in 1847, with a group of Dutch emmigrants who moved to North America because of discontent over religious and economic matters. Aart KOOL, who farmed near Pella, anglicized the family name to Cole. The couple had a son Charles Nicholas Cole (1848-1947) who gained a reputation as a seedsman in Chicago working for the Vaughn Seed Company & then to New York & to Memphis to work for 2 more seed companies. In 1870, he returned to Pella to establish Cole's Seeds with his wife Etta Kruger Cole (1856-1953). He was joined by his brothers & the business was called Cole Bros Seed Company for several years.

Thursday, August 10, 2017

South Carolina's Hannah English Williams (d 1722) 1st Woman Botanist in America.

Hannah English Williams (d Dec. 16, 1722) is often described as the earliest woman botanist in America. She was the first female in the American British colonies to gather plant and animal specimens for scientific collections. Her work aided the cataloging of many of South Carolina’s natural resources and contributed to advancing botanical and zoological understanding in that colony in England. Little is known of Williams' origins. Her husband, Matthew English, by whom she had 2 children, arrived aboard the Carolina with the 1st European settlers in 1670. She may have followed shortly thereafter. Her birth date, birthplace, and parents’ names are unknown.  
Hannah William's Yellow Tipt Carolina Butterfly (now known as Dog's Head) Petiver's Gazophylacium naturae et artis...1767

Two South Carolina wills mention Hannah English Williams' children. In a 1710 South Carolina Will, proved 26th October, 1711, William Williams of Carolina planter, and gives to his son-in-law Henroyda English, all of his estate, real and personal. His mother Hannah Williams, widow to William Williams, declares the above will to have been made with her consent. The 1694 South Carolina Will of Charles Clarke, of Berkley County, dated November 2, 1694, mentions Mrs. Mary Spragg, daughter of Mrs. Hannah Williams, to whom he leaves a house and lot, bounding on late belonging to Gov. Thomas Smith. Mentions also William Williams, gentleman, of Carolina, and leaves the remainder of his property to William Williams and Mrs. Mary Spragg.

After her husband's death, she married planter William Williams between 1692-4. Her 1,000-acre plantation was at Stony Point on the Ashley River. As the widow Hannah English, she was awarded a warrant of 500 acres near Stony Poynt in November 1692. In May 1695, as Mrs. Hannah English alias Williams, she was granted another warrant for 500 acres on land on the north side of Ashley River called Stony Poynt. This 1000 acres of land was a wealthy source of undiscovered wildlife. This land would have provided her with unlimited opportunities for finding native plants, butterflies, vipers, snakes, lizards, birds, insects, plants and shells.

As early as 1701, she began a regular correspondence with James Petiver, a London apothecary and Fellow of the Royal Society. Williams & Petiver corresponded from 1701 to 1713, & he listed those items he wished her to procure when she joined his network of collectors. Petiver encouraged her interest in natural history, declaring Williams the “discoverer” of unique butterflies & describing her as “my generous benefactress.” He instructed Williams how to preserve specimens for shipping, with “each stuck on a pin or in a little viall drowned in Rum or Brandy.” Petiver described Williams’s contributions in his published serial booklets entitled Musei Petiveriani Centuria Prima Rariora Naturae.A February 6, 1704, letter from Williams to Petiver accompanied a shipment of “Some of Our Vipers & Severall Sorts of Snakes Scorpions & Lizzards” in addition to shells, a bee nest, & a “few Other Insex.” She promised to send “some Mockin birds & Red birds” in the spring because, “If I should send you any Now the Could would Kill them.” She also enclosed a “Westo Kings Tobacco pipe & a Queens Petticoat made off Moss” & asked for newspapers & “medisons.” 

Williams’s son met Petiver in England to discuss collections his mother had been gathering, until she heard false reports of Petiver’s death. Petiver expressed his respect for Williams by naming some butterfly species for her. In 1767, Petiver’s Gazophylacium Naturae et Artis included illustrations of Williams’s orange girdled Carolina butterfly (also called the viceroy, which mimics monarch butterflies), Williams’s yellow tipt Carolina butterfly (popularly called dog’s head), & Williams’s selvedge-eyed Carolina butterfly (known as creole pearly eye).
Hannah William's Selvedge Eyed Carolina Butterfly (now known as Creole Pearly Eye) Petiver's Gazophylacium naturae et artis...1767

Williams asked Petiver for medical advice and pharmaceuticals because “I am Very much Troubled with the splene.” Records indicate that Williams was buried on December 16, 1722, in St. Philip’s Churchyard, Charleston.

See:
“An Account of Animals and Shells Sent from Carolina to Mr. James Petiver, F.R.S.” Philosophical Transactions [of the Royal Society of London] 24 (1704–1705): 1952–60.
Smith, Beatrice Scheer. “Hannah English Williams: America’s First Woman Natural History Collector.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 87 (April 1986): 83–92.
Stearns, Raymond P. “James Petiver, Promoter of Natural Science, c. 1663–1718.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, n.s., 62 (October 1952): 243–365.
Stearns, Raymond P. Science in the British Colonies of America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970.

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

1899 Livingston's Catalog from Columbus, Ohio

1899 Livingston's Catalog from Columbus, Ohio
Alexander W. Livingston was born on October 14, 1822, near Reynoldsburg, Ohio. He grew up on his family's farm & received limited schooling. He could read & write & do simple math problems. While still a child, Livingston showed an interest in seeds & plants, & many Reynoldsburg residents viewed him as an authority on these subjects. Upon reaching adulthood, Livingston married Matilda Dickey Graham. The couple had 10 children. In 1852, Livingston purchased 70 acres of land near Reynoldsburg. Here he developed A.W. Livingston Buckeye Seed Gardens, a seed business. His business quickly prospered. At this time, Livingston began to try to improve the tomato. He succeeded in doing so in 1870. Livingston spent two decades breeding his "Paragon" tomato. Tomatoes existed before Livingston, but they were small fruits with a sour taste. Livingston's Paragon was much larger & had a sweeter taste. Over the next 28 years, Livingston developed more than 30 other varieties of tomatoes. His work helped to make tomatoes more popular with American cooks. A scientist until the end of his life, Livingston died in 1898.
Timeline:
1822 - Founder Alexander W Livingston b in Reynoldsburg, OH 
1842 - Begins working for a local seed grower. 
1844 - Marries and leases land to begin farming.
1852 - Purchases his own land for a farm & seed business. 
1856 - Purchases 400 boxes of the Buckeye Garden Seed Company from Robert Robertson who was moving to Iowa.  During the late 1850s and early 1860s, business does well; and Livingston is able to expand his farming and seed operations. 
1864-65 - Builds a family home and consolidates seed and farming operations in one location. 
1875-76 - The Buckeye Garden Seed Company went bankrupt in the economic crash that affected many businesses in the nation. The business is dissolved and new entity formed by son Robert and named, "A. W. Livingston's Sons." Marketing was expanded using seed catalogs and advertising in newspapers and magazines. 
1880 - The company moves from Reynoldsburg to Columbus, Ohio. Alexander moves to Des Moines, Iowa after purchasing the farm of his friend Robert Robertson. Alexander's plan was to relocate the entire company to Iowa, but the business was prospering in Columbus under his son's management. 
1890 - After Alexander's wife passes away, he turned over the Iowa seed business to his son, Josiah. He returned to Ohio and began to work on his book, "Livingston and the Tomato." It was part autobiographical, part instructional, and part agricultural history. It combined information about Livingston's methods, the history of the tomato as a food crop, and even contained a large selection of compiled recipes. 
1898 - The company is incorporated as the Livingston Seed Company. Founder, A. W. Livingston passes away. 
1919 - The Livingstons were big players in the seed trade industry interacting with many major seed houses. They had their own grow outs as well as 'traded' stock. On April 1st, 1919, a fire broke out at one of their warehouses destroying everything. The McCullough's Sons Seed Company from Cincinnati, took the train up to Columbus the next day, gathered up what they could, and filled orders for the Livingstons. Even with their help, Livingstons still was forced to send out a form letter returning orders along with money.  
1930s - By the late 1930s, the seed industry had begun to change. The company survived by moving into field seeds, and dropped tomatoes from their line. 1937 - The United States Department of Agriculture's "Yearbook of Agriculture" for the year 1937 published the following short history: "The work of A. W. Livingston, of Columbus, Ohio, and his associates and successors in the Livingston Seed Co. has resulted in the introduction of more new varieties than that of any other private group. Most of the varieties introduced by the Livingstons were of their own finding or origination, but some were obtained from other growers. Paragon, from a chance seedling, was their first introduction (1870). The famous old variety Acme was developed by A. W. Livingston from a single superior plant found in a field of mixed stock and introduced in 1875. Like the Trophy, this variety was the source or served as one parent of many subsequently introduced varieties. In 1880 Perfection, a chance variant in Acme, was introduced. Livingston next brought out Golden Queen in 1882, Favorite in 1883, Beauty in 1886, Potato Leaf in 1887, Stone in 1889, and Royal Red in 1892. This last was developed from seven similar plants found in a field of Dwarf Champion by M. M. Miesse. The others just named were chance seedlings occurring in varieties the names of which are not known. These were followed by Aristocrat and Buckeye State in 1893, Honor Bright in 1897, and Magnus in 1900, as chance seedlings in varieties not recorded. In 1903 Dwarf Stone was introduced; it was a chance seedling found in Stone. Globe is from a cross between Stone and Ponderosa made about 1899 by Robert Livingston and was introduced in 1905. Hummer, another introduction, was selected out of Paragon. Of this impressive list introduced by the Livingstons, Stone and Globe are among the most important varieties grown today. Acme, Beauty, Buckeye State, Dwarf Stone, Golden Queen, and Perfection are still listed by some seed producers although they are not extensively grown." "With all due credit to the important contributions of other growers, seedsmen, and investigators, it is not out of place to call attention again to the great contribution of the Livingston Seed Co. to tomato improvement. Of about 40 varieties that had attained a distinct status prior to 1910, a third were productions or introductions by the Livingston company. If we add those varieties derived directly from Livingston productions and introductions, it appears that half of the major varieties were due to the abilities of the Livingstons to evaluate and perpetuate superior material in the tomato." 
1947 - The last wholesale catalog was produced. 

Tuesday, August 8, 2017

Bibliography of American Seed and Nursery Industry & their Trade Catalogs



"Alfred F. Conard;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n25, Dec. 22, 1906, p773. Obituary notice.

American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990.
Whole issue devoted to the "Life and Times in the [nursery] Industry."

Appleton"s Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887. James Vick is listed.

The Art of Gardening: Maryland Landscapes and the American Garden Aesthetic, 1730-1930: May-October, 1985, The Historical Society of Talbot County. Easton, MD: Historical Society of Talbot County, 1985. An exhibition on the role of gardening in the history of Maryland, included nursery and seed catalogs and advertising memorabilia.

Bailey, L. H. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture; A discussion, for the Amateur, and .... New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937. Biographies of horticulturists, pomologists, seedsmen, and nurserymen under the heading of 'Horticulturists.'

Baxter, Samuel Newman.  "The Nursery Catalog of a Century Back;" The Florists Exchange and Horticultural Trade World, vLX n18, Oct. 31, 1925, p1431. Catalog for Bartram's Botanic Garden, proprietor, Robert Carr, dated 1828.

Beans, Bruce E. "Seeds of Greatness: How the Burpee Empire Grew;" Inquirer (The Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine), Mar. 1, 1987, pp17-24. History of the Burpee company.

Benson, Albert Emerson. History of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. [Norwood, MA]: Printed for the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 1929. History of Society from 1830-1929. Lists officers of Society.

The Berckmans Collection at the Cherokee Garden Library, Atlanta, Georgia. This collection contains manuscripts, photographs, business records and personal memorabilia of Prosper Jules Alphonse Berckmans, Sr.

"Bernard McMahon;" The Oxford Companion to Gardens. Oxford; New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1986. Biography.

Birkby, Bob and Janice Nahra Friedel.  "Henry, Himself;" The Palimpsest, v64 n5, Sep./Oct. 1983, pp150-169. Biography of Henry Arms Field of Shenandoah, Iowa.

Block, Lori.  "A Century (or More!) And Counting;" American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990, pp78-102. A compendium of all the nursery businesses that have celebrated 100 years of continuous operation.

Boyd, James. A History of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1827-1927. Philadelphia: Printed for the Society, 1929. History of the Society broken up into seven different periods. Has biographies and portraits of officers that include many nurserymen and seedsmen and descriptions of gardens including nurseries.

Breckon, Gary.  "Lila's Nursery;" California Horticulture Society Journal, vXXVIII n3, Jul. 1967, pp193-196. History of a succulent nursery owned by Mrs. Lila Lillie and her mother, Mrs. Mary Belle Williams.

Brown, Thomas A., A List of California Nurseries and Their Catalogues 1850-1900. Petaluma, Calif. : T.A. Brown, 1993.

Bryan, Charles F., Jr. Seed for Thought. St. Louis, MO: St. Louis Mercantile Library, 1988. The catalog of an exhibition of early seed catalogues, horticultural manuals and illustrated books related to 19th and 20th century American gardening in the collection of the St. Louis Mercantile Library, in cooperation with the Missouri Botanical Garden Library, July 30-September 21, 1988.

Burbank, Luther. Luther Burbank, His Methods and Discoveries and Their Practical Application; Prepared....... New York; London: Luther Burbank Press, 1914-15. Twelve volumes taken from Burbank's original field notes made during forty years of research.

"Burnet Landreth;" The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Volume 24. Clifton, NJ: J. T. White, 1893-. Biography.

Burr, Charles J.  "The Berkeley Horticultural Nursery;" California Horticultural Journal, v34 n1, Jan. 1973, pp10-11. George Budgen, founder of nursery in 1922.

Burr, Charles J.  "The California Nursery: A History;" California Horticultural Journal, v31 n4, Oct. 1970, pp138-143. A history of one of the oldest nurseries in the West written six months after its demise in the spring of 1970.

Burr, Charles J. "Nurseries and Nurserymen --The Edenvale Nursery;" California Horticultural Journal, v33 n1, Jan. 1971, pp37, 39. History of Edenvale Nursery founded by C. E. Wilson and later owned by Frank Serpa.

Butterfield, Harry M.  "Builder's of California Horticulture, Part 1;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vXXII n1, Jan. 1961, pp2-7, 28. Information on William C. Walker, James Saul, United States Nursery, Juan Centre (John Center), Edward L. Reimers, Stephen Nolan, and the Shell Mound Nursery.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Builder's of California Horticulture, Part 2;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXII n3, Jul. 1961, pp102-107. Information on James Hutchison, W. F. Kelsey, Charles David Weber, Joseph Aram, Louis Prevost, Bernard S. Fox, Johann Felz, William C. Walker, William Wolfskill, Kate Sessions, Theodosia B. Shepherd, Carl Purdy, Edward O. Orpet, Luther Burbank, and C. C. Morse.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Carl Salbach--Plant Breeder and Nurseryman;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXI n4, Oct. 1950, pp172-176. Biography of Carl Salbach.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Early Horticulture in Northern and Central California;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXIX n1, Jan. 1968, pp30-32. Information on Frank Kunz, Peter Kunz, the Felix Gillet Nursery, Luther Burbank, and Carl Purdy.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Early Nurseries in the Eastern United States;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVII n2, Apr. 1966, pp42-56. Brief histories of 23 East Coast nurseries.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Horticultural Activity in the Santa Barbara Area;" California Horticultural Journal, vXXIX n2, Apr. 1968, pp49-50, 55. Biographies of Joseph Sexton (1842-1917), Kinton Stevens of The Palm and Citrus Nursery, Emanuele O. Fenzi, and Edward Owen Orpet.

Butterfield, Harry M. "The History of Ornamental Horticulture in California;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVI n2, Apr. 1965, pp 47-50. History starting with William C. Walker and his Golden Gate Nursery established in 1849.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Horticulture in the San Diego Area;" California Horticultural Journal, vXXX n2, Apr. 1969, pp62-63.
Short biographies of Kate Olivia Sessions (1857-1940) and Alfred D. Robinson, the founder of Rosecroft Begonia Gardens.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Pioneer Horticulturists in the Los Angeles Area;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXIX n3, Jul. 1968, pp 93-95. Information on Ozro B. Childs, Matthew Keller, Louis J. Stengel, John Grelck, E. D. Sturtevant, Eugene Germain, Aggeler and Musser Seed Company founded by Henry L. Musser in 1896, and Theodore Payne.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Some Pioneer Nurseries in California and their Plants, Part 1;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVII n3, Jul. 1966, pp 70-77. Information on James L. Lafayette Warren, William Neely Thompson, Julius K. Rose, C. V. Gillespie, J. Bryant Hill, E. L. Beard, William Connell Walker, John Center (Juan Centre), James and William O'Donnell, Henry Sonntag, J. O'Hare, Frederick A. Miller, Edward L. Reimer, S. W. Moore, F. Ludemann, Robert J. Trumbull, E. Meyer, Charles Abraham, and H. H. Berger.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Some Pioneer Nurseries in California and their Plants, Part 2;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVII n4, Oct. 1966, pp 102-108. Information on James Hutchison, William F. Kelsey, A. D. Pryal, Stephen Nolan and his Belle View Nursery, Lewelling Brothers, Domoto Brothers, H. Yoshiike of the Japanese Nursery, and Edward C. Gill.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Some Pioneer Nurseries in California and their Plants, Part 3;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVIII n1, Jan. 1967, pp 132-139. Short biographies of California nurserymen including William Mohr, Jemima Branin, John Rock, James Shinn, Sydney Bancroft Mitchell, Carl Salbach, Edward Oliver Essig, and Professor E. O. James.

Christiansen, Bess Gedney. "A Brief History of Seed Catalogs;" The Historical Gardener, v3 n3, Fall 1994, pp 4-5. Landreth, Thorburn, Downing, Vick's, and Ferry.

farmer seed packetChristopher, Thomas. "Flora Unbound;" House & Garden, v167 n9, September 1998, pp 146-148. The use of floral plates as decorative prints.

Christopher, Thomas. "Heirloom Seed Catalogs: Back Issues Yield Insights into the Origins of American Gardening;" Horticulture, v63 n12, December 1985, pp 24-27. A history of seed and nursery catalogs in America.

"Comstock, Ferre & Co., 1820-1980: Celebrating 160 Years in the Seed Business." History of the company, probably written by Mrs. Corinne W. Willard, wife of the president of the company in 1980.

Culbertson, Molly. "The Paper Garden;" Country Home, v12 issue 1, February 1990, pp81-85, 113 A discussion of lithography, the art of the seed catalogs, as well as a history of American seed companies.

"David Burpee;" The National Cyclopedia of American Biography. Clifton, NJ: J. T. White, 1893- Biography.

Dreyer, Peter. A Gardener Touched with Genius: The Life of Luther Burbank. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985. Biography of Luther Burbank.

"Early American Nurserymen and Seedsmen;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967, (February 1968) pp 75-76. One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

"Early American Seed Trade;" Grower Talks, v40 n3, July 1976, pp 1-15. This special bicentennial issue of Grower Talks gives a history of American horticulture. Grower Talks is published by Ball Publishing, part of George J. Ball Company, a flower seed breeding and distribution company.

Elisabeth Woodburn, Books. Catalogue #2 (New Series) - Seed & Nursery Catalogues. Hopewell, NJ: Elisabeth Woodburn, Books, January 1998. Catalog of important horticultural book dealer.

Elliott, Charles. "A. J. Downing, Garden Evangelist;" Horticulture, vLXXIII n9, Nov. 1995, pp 14-22. Downing's role as arbiter of taste.

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Annual Catalogue of Plants, Seeds, Trees, 1909.  San Francisco, CA: 1909. (Cat. 012950)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Ferry's Home Garden Catalogue.  San Francisco, CA: 1931. (Cat. 022551)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Morse's Garden Guide, 1915.  San Francisco, CA: 1915. (Cat. 015737)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Morse's Seeds Garden Guide, 1917 .  San Francisco, CA: 1917. (Cat. 016462)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Morse's Garden Guide, 1918.  San Francisco, CA: 1918. (Cat. 016422)

"Field, Henry;" The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Volume 47. Clifton, NJ: J. T. White, 1893-. Biography.

Fitzpatrick, John T. "An Overview of American Nursery and Seed Catalogues, 1771-1832;" Plants and People: The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife, Annual Proceedings, 24 and 25 June 1995; v20, 1996, pp 152-162. Reports on 21 representative catalogs published between 1771 and 1832. They are sources of information on plants, nurseries, and gardeners and give a record of what was being offered for sale at particular times and places.

Garden and Forest, v3, July 2, 1890, p 328. Obituary of Patrick Barry.

"George Ellwanger;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n22, Dec. 1, 1906, p 661. Obituary notice.

"George Ellwanger;" Proceedings of the Thirtieth Session of the American Pomological Society held on the exposition grounds at Jamestown, Virginia, Sept. 24-26, 1907. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1908. Obituary.

"Grant Thorburn;" The Gardener's Monthly and Horticultural Advertiser, vV, 1863, p 91. Obituary.

Hedrick, U. P. A History of Horticulture in America to 1860. Portland, OR: Timber Press, c 1988. A history of gardening, fruit growing, and viticulture. Plant explorers and botanic gardens, and plant breeding are covered.

Henderson, Alfred. Peter Henderson, Gardener, Author, Merchant: A Memoir. New York:  McIlroy & Emmet, 1890. Biography of Peter Henderson by his son.

Herringshaw, Thomas William, ed. Herringshaw's Encyclopedia of American Biography of the Nineteenth Century. Chicago, IL: American Publishers' Association, 1905. Grant Thorburn is listed.

Higginbotham, Julie S. "Four Centuries of Planting and Progress: A History of the U. S. Nursery Industry;" American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990, pp 36-59. Summarizes the U. S. nursery industry, from its pre-Colonial roots to 1990. Includes a chronology starting in 1565 to 1990.

Higginbotham, Julie S. "The Greening of a Continent;" American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990, pp 62-63. Regional look at the nursery industry.

"The History of U. S. Floriculture;" Greenhouse Grower, v17 n10, Fall 1999, pp 28-37. History of Ball Seed Co., Goldsmith Seeds, Novartis Seeds, Bodger Seeds, Sakata Seed, Takii & Co., Benary Seed, Daehnfeldt, Waller Flowerseed, W. Atlee Burpee, Park Seed, Harris Seeds, Henry F. Michell Co., Grimes Seeds, Fred C. Gloeckner & Co., and Express Seed Co.

good crops seed packetHollingsworth, Buckner. "Theodosia Burr Shepherd, 1845-1906;" Her Garden was Her Delight. New York: Macmillan, 1962. Biography largely taken from an unpublished biography by Shepherd's daughter.

"The House of Thorburn, New York--An Interesting History;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n15, Oct. 13, 1906, p 441. History of Thorburn Co., New York, New York.

Hutton, R. J. "Robert Pyle--A Life Devoted to Roses;" The American Rose Magazine, vXXXI n20, Aug 1992, p 11. Biography of Pyle with emphasis on his work with the American Rose Society.

Ilgenfritz Nurseries, Inc. Monroe Nursery.  Ilgenfritz Garden Styles for '53.  Monroe, MI: 1953. (Cat. 021707)

Indiana Horticultural Society. Transactions of the Indiana Horticultural Society for the year 1908. Indianapolis: W. B. Burford, 1909. List of nurseries in Indiana on official inspection list for 1908. Biography of Andrew Hampton, pioneer nurseryman of Indiana.

"John Scheepers & Company, New York;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n19, Nov. 10, 1906. Brief history of John Scheepers & Co.

Kellen, Vince. "200 Years of the Right Stuff;" Florists' Review, v173 n4485, Nov. 17, 1983, pp 46-47. History of Landreth's, America's oldest seed company.

Keller, Kenneth W. "Merchandising Nature: The H. J. Weber and Sons Nursery," Missouri Historical Review, v89 n3, April 1995, pp 307-326. The author, a professor of history at Mary Baldwin College in Staunton, Virginia, is the great-grandson of Henry J. Weber.

Kelsey Nursery Service.  Safe Autumn Planting Catalog no. 166, 174, 178.  Highlands, NJ: 1960-1966. (cat. 024074-024076)

Kelsey Nursery Service.  Short Guide to the Best Varieties of Trees... Catalog no. 165, 167, 171, 173, 177, 179.  Highlands, NJ: 1960-1967. (cat. 024097-024102)

King, Louisa Yeomans. Pages from a garden note-book. New York: Scribner, 1921. Chapter XII is "A Review of the American Seed Catalogue." This chapter was written in 1916 as an article in a popular journal. There is mention of Vaughan; Dreer; Farquhar; Palisades Nurseries of Sparkill, New York; Peter Henderson; Burpee; Bobbink & Atkins; Michell's (of Philadelphia); John Lewis Childs; Henry Field of Shenandoah, Iowa; Weeber & Don of New York; Henry Dawson of Eastern Nurseries, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts; Moon of Morrisville, Pennsylvania; Hicks; Ellwanger and Barry; Klehm's Nurseries, Andorra Nurseries; Hill of Dundee, Illinois; California Nursery Company of Niles, California; Julius Roehrs; Good & Reese of Springfield, Ohio; Frederick H. Horsford of Charlotte, Vermont; Storrs & Harrison; Farr's of Wyomissing, Pennsylvania; E. G. Hill Company of Richmond, Indiana; Conard & Jones; etc.

Kraft, Ken. Garden to Order. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1963.
History of Burpee Co.

Kraft, Ken and Pat. "Seeds for Sale;" Country Living Gardener, v1 n1, Spring/Summer 1993, pp 30-31. How America's seed houses got their start.

"Landreth, Cuthbert;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

"Landreth, David;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

"Landreth, David, Jr.;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

Lees, Carlton B. "The Golden Age of Horticulture;" Historic Preservation, v24 n4, October-December 1972, pp 32-37. A discussion of horticulture in 19th century America.

Leighton, Ann. American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: "For Use or For Delight." Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976. Chapter 12 is titled "Catalogues and Lists." Information on John Bartram, William Prince, and Bernard M'Mahon.

Leighton, Ann. American Gardens in the Nineteenth Century: "For Comfort and Affluence." Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1987. Chapter 5 is titled "Seedsmen and Their Nurseries." Information on Bernard M'Mahon, Joseph Breck, Thomas and Alfred Bridgeman, Robert Buist, Thomas Meehan, Peter Henderson, Charles Mason and Phineas Brown Hovey.

"Lewis Chase;" Proceedings of the Thirty-third Biennial Session of the American Pomological Society held in Washington, D. C., November 17-21, 1913. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1914. Obituary.

"List of Nurserymen, Florists, and Seedsmen;" American Horticultural Annual, 1868, p159-164. A list of "only those who have sent circulars or business cards, and those who advertise in the horticultural journals."

Lowe, Jeannette. "Burpee's Celebrates Its Centennial, 1876-1976;" Flower & Garden, v20 n3, Mar. 1976, pp26-29, 45. History of the Burpee company by a staff horticulturist.

Mack, Richard N. "Catalog of Woes: Some of Our Most Troublesome Weeds Were Dispersed Through the Mail;" Natural History, Mar. 1990, pp 44-53. Article about weeds, but illustrated with old seed and nursery catalog covers.

"Made Wild by Pompous Catalogs;" American Horticulture, v70 n1, January 1991, p 1-2. In 1850, the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher protested the proliferation of posters, seed boxes, trade cards, and catalogs with lavish illustrations, thus the quote "made wild by pompous catalogs." A short history of illustrations in seed and nursery catalogs.

Mahurin, Carl. "Carl Purdy;" California Horticultural Society Journal, v2 n4, Oct. 1941, p 196-207. Biography.

Manks, Dorothy S. "How the American Nursery Trade Began;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967 (February 1968).
One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

The Mayflower. Floral Park, New York: Mayflower Pub. Co., 188?
John Lewis Childs was the owner and editor of this magazine.

McGourty, Frederick, Jr. "Long Island's Famous Nurseries;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967 (February 1968), pp 58-61, 82.
One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

McIntosh, W. H. History of Monroe County, New York: with Illustrations Descriptive of its Scenery, Palatial Residences, Public Buildings, Fine Blocks and Important Manufactories, from Original Sketches by Artists of the Highest Ability. Philadelphia: Everts, Ensign & Everts, 1877. History of Mount Hope Nurseries; James Vick, Seedsman and Florist with engravings of Vick's Flower Farm; and Briggs Seed House. Also history of artists and lithographers in Rochester, New York.

McKelvey, Blake. "The Flower City: Center of Nurseries and Fruit Orchards;" Rochester Historical Society Publications, v18 pt.2, 1940, pp 121-169. A history of the early nurseries in Rochester, New York and their contribution to the horticultural development of Western New York and to the rest of the world as well.

Meehan, S. Mendelson, ed. "A Brief Sketch of the Life of Thomas Meehan;" Meehans' Monthly, A Magazine of Horticulture, Botany and Kindred Subjects, Volume 12 , Jan. 1902, pp 13-19. Biography.

Mitich, Larry W. "The World of A. Blanc;" Cactus & Succlent Journal (U.S.), vXLV, 1973, pp158-170. Description of A. Blanc's interest in cactus and how his hobby eventually expanded into the world's largest cactus nursery.

Mitich, Larry W. "The World of A. Blanc, Part II;" Cactus & Succlent Journal (U.S.), vXLV, 1973, pp 203-213.

Mitich, Larry W. "The World of A. Blanc, Part III (conclusion);" Cactus & Succlent Journal (U.S.), vXLV, 1973, pp 259-269.

"M'Mahon, Bernard;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

Morey, Dick. "The Most Complete 'Hort' House in the U.S.A.: Vaughan-Jacklin Corporation...Beautify America Since 1876;" Nursery Business, v25 n4, April 1980, pp 50-51,54,68-69,76,80,94.
A history of this Chicago area company.

"Mrs. Theodosia B. Shepherd;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n12, Sep. 22, 1906, pp 346-347. Obituary notice and tribute.

Navlet, Arthur E. "Visiting the Flower Seed Farms of California;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vIX n2, Apr. 1948, pp 86-90. Visits of flower seed buyers are described.

Naylor, Harriett Julia. "Rochester's Agricultural Press: A Mirror of Genesee Country Life;" Rochester Historical Society Publications, v18 pt.2, 1940, pp 170-200. Some of Rochester's seedsmen and nurserymen were owners, editors or writers of Rochester's agricultural press, including Charles Crosman, James Vick, Joseph Harris, and Patrick Barry.

Neal, Steve. "David Burpee;" Dictionary of American Biography: Supplement 10 (1976-1980), 80-82. Biography.

Nguyen, Chris. "The Promise of Spring: Available by Mail Order;" Horizon: The Learning Section (The Washington Post), Wednesday, Jan. 10, 1996. History of the Burpee company.

Norcross, Marjorie R. "Cataloging America's Cultural Roots;" Cornell Plantations, v47 n1, 1992, pp15-22. A discussion of how American values were tied to American horticulture in seed catalogs. "To turn the pages of nineteenth century seed and nursery catalogs is to pursue a home course of art appreciation, ethics, politics, landscaping, domestic arts, and of course, horticulture."

"Nurserymen, Florists, Seedsmen, and Dealers in Horticultural Stock;" American Horticultural Annual, 1871, pp140-152
A list comprised of the "names of those who have sent us catalogues, etc., and those who advertise in the leading journals."

Oberle, Stephanie Ginsberg. "The Influence of Thomas Meehan on Horticulture in the United States;" Germantown Crier, v49 n1, Spring 1999, pp 4-25. Scholarly paper on Meehan with footnotes and photographs.

One hundred years of trust, 1884-1984. Minneapolis, MN: Northrup King Co., 1984. History of the Northrup King Co., one of the largest seed companies in the world, written for it=s centennial.

Orpet, Mildred Selfridge. "E. O. Orpet, Horticulturist;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vXIII n2, Apr. 1952, pp 39-52.
Biography.

Park's Floral Magazine. LaPark, Pennsylvania: Geo. W. Park, 1871-1925. George W. Park was editor and publisher of this magazine.

Parks, Dan. "The Cultivation of Flower City;" Rochester History, vXLV Nos. 3 & 4, Jul. and Oct. 1983, pp 25-47. The story of entrepreneurs in horticulture in Rochester, New York. Includes nurserymen: Naaman Goodsell, Asa Rowe, George Ellwanger and Patrick Barry; and seedsmen: James Vick, C. F. Crosman, Joseph Harris, Briggs Brothers, and William H. Reid.

"Patrick Barry;" Annals of Horticulture in North America for the Year 1890. New York: Rural Publishing Company, 1891. Obituary for Patrick Barry of the firm Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, New York.

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, Philadelphia. From Seed to Flower: Philadelphia, 1681-1876: A Horticultural Point of View. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1976. Exhibition catalog for an exhibition put together for the bicentennial. "...a display of books and artifacts written, published, and used by Philadelphians in the last half of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth centuries."

"Profile: David Burpee, President, W. Atlee Burpee Co.;" Delaware Valley Announcer, v36 n4, Apr. 1963, pp 25-26, 49. Biography.

"Prosper Julius A. Berckmans;" Proceedings of the Thirty-second Session of the American Pomological Society held at Tampa, Florida, February 9, 10 and 11, 1911. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1912.
Obituary.

Raver, Ann. "Where Burpee First Tilled;" The New York Times, Sunday, August 23, 1992. History of Burpee Co. and visit to Fordhook Farms with George C. Ball, owner of Burpee.

Reilly, Ann. "Lessons of the Farm: The David Burpee Story;" Nursery Business, v24 n1, Jan. 1979, pp50-52, 57, 65. History of W. Atlee Burpee Company and David Burpee's role in the company.

"Research Inspires 134-Year-Old Vegetable Giant;" Seed World, v128 n12, November 1990, pp21-23. A history of Ferry-Morse Seed Company.

Reynolds, George.  "Seedsmen to a Growing Country;" New York-Pennsylvania Collector, March 1990, pp 15C-17C.
The early history of the seed and nursery industry in Rochester, New York ("The Flower City").

"Robert Buist;" The Gardener's Monthly and Horticulturist, vXXII n264, December 1880, pp 372-374. An obituary of Robert Buist.

"Robert Scott;" Meehans' Monthly, A Magazine of Horticulture, Botany and Kindred Subjects, vVI, September 1896, pp178. An obituary of Robert Scott.

Rochester Directory of Nurserymen, Seedsmen and Florists of the United States and Canada: Giving Classified List of Names and Addresses, Alphabetically Arranged. Rochester, New York:
Rochester Lithographing Co., 1893-.

Rockwell, F. F. "Flowers for the Forty Million: An Interview with David Burpee by F. F. Rockwell;" Home Arts--Needlecraft, Jan. 1938. Burpee's work developing new flowers at his plant laboratories at Floradale, California, and Fordhook Farms, Doylestown, Pennsylvania.

Rogier, June M. Andersen Horticultural Library: the first 25 years. Chanhassen, MN: Andersen Horticultural Library, c1996. Two chapters on their seed and nursery catalog collection.

Rogier, June. "Catalogs Link Gardeners Across 2 Centuries;" Arboretum News, v17 n1, January-February 1998, pp 1,6.
A description of the collection of catalogs (200,000 items) in the Andersen Horticultural Library at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. Describes some Minnesota seedswomen's and nurserymen's catalogs.

Rust, David. "Among the Growers: Henry A. Dreer, Inc., Riverton, N. J.;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n18, Nov. 3, 1906, p 534.
The author's visit to the Dreer establishment.

Sarudy, Barbara Wells. Gardens and Gardening in the Chesapeake, 1700-1805. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
Chapter four is "Seeds and Plants" and has information on early seedsmen and nurserymen. Chapter ten has information on Bernard M'Mahon.

Sarudy, Barbara Wells. "Nurserymen and Seed Dealers in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake;" Journal of Garden History, v9 n3, July-September 1989, pp 111-117.

Sarudy, Barbara Wells. "South Carolina Seed Merchants and Nurserymen Before 1820;" Magnolia; Bulletin of the Southern Garden History Society, vVII n3 Winter 1992 p 6-10.

Saul, John A. "Tree Culture, or a Sketch of Nurseries in the District of Columbia;" Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D. C., v10, 1907, pp 38-62. A history of nurseries and nurserymen in the District of Columbia including the author's grandfather John Saul.

"Seed Trade in America--Before the ASTA;" Seed World, v121 n6, May 1983, pp 21-22. A history of the seed industry in America before the American Seed Trade Association which was established by C. W. Crosman of Rochester, New York.

corn - seed packetShepherd, Theodosia B.  ...California Flowers, Plants, Seeds, Bulbs, Palms, Orchids, Cacti.  Ventura-By-The-Sea, CA: 1895.  (Cat. 008830).

Sinclair, Ward. "Send Seeds: Why the relentless mail order seed catalogue is about as American a document as there is;" The Washington Post Magazine, April 6, 1986, pp 6-13. A description of the collection of trade catalogs at the National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland and the catalog seed business in America today.

Slosson, Elvenia, comp. Pioneer American Gardening. New York: Coward-McCann, 1951. A collection of American horticultural stories contributed by members of forty-one states with federated gardeners that form the National Council of State Garden Clubs.

"Some American Seedsmen and Nurserymen;' Annals of Horticulture in North America for the Year 1899. New York: Rural Publishing Company, 1890. List of catalogs that had been received in the editor's office during the year of 1899.

Steffek, Edwin F. "Robert Pyle;" Dictionary of American Biography: Supplement 5 (1951-1956), pp 555-556. Biography.

Success with Flowers. West Grove, Pennsylvania: The Dingee & Conard Co., Oct. 1890-June 1904. Alfred Fellenberg Conard and Charles Dingee were owners and editors.

Templin, L., & Sons.  Bargains in Seeds, Plants, Vines, Bulbs, Etc.  Calla, OH: 1898.  (Cat. 017690)

Templin, L., & Sons.  Templin's Ideal Seeds, Bulbs, Plants, Etc. 1903, 1904.  Calla, OH: 1903-1904.  (Cat. 011022-011023)

Terry, Dickson. The Stark Story: Stark Nurseries 150th Anniversary. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Historical Society, 1966.
History of Stark Brothers Nurseries and Orchards Company, Louisiana, Missouri.

"Theodore S. Hubbard;" Proceedings of the Thirtieth Session of the American Pomological Society held on the exposition grounds at Jamestown, Virginia, Sept. 24-26, 1907. Cleveland, Ohio: merican Pomological Society, 1908. Obituary.

"Thomas Meehan;" Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh Session of the American Pomological Society held in Buffalo, N. Y., Sept. 12-13, 1901. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1902.
Obituary. Thomas Meehan was the First Vice-President of the Society.

"Thomas Meehan, 19th Century Plantsman;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967 (February 1968), pp 81, 85. One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

"Thomas Volney Munson;" Proceedings of the Thirty-third Biennial Session of the American Pomological Society held in Washington, D. C., November 17-21, 1913. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1914. Obituary.

Thorburn, Grant. Forty Years' Residence in America; or, the Doctrine of a Particular Providence Exemplified in the Life of Grant Thorburn. Written by Himself. Boston: Russell, Odiorne & Metcalf, 1834. "...whom in the name of wonder, has a better right to publish a man's life, than himself?" An autobiography.

Tice, Patricia M. Gardening in America, 1830-1910. Rochester, NY: The Strong Museum, 1984. "Gardening in America," an exhibit and a book presents the origins of American's love of gardening and their changing tastes in gardening.

"Tributes to the Late George Ellwanger;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n23, Dec. 8, 1906, p 695. Tributes from the daily papers of Rochester, New York.

Tucker, David M. Kitchen Gardening in America: A History. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, c1993. Chapter 6: Seed Catalogues and Straight Rows.

seed packet - RossTuten, James H. "David Burpee;" American National Biography, Volume 22. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Biography.

University of Rochester. Library Bulletin. vXXXV 1982.
Entire volume devoted to the seed and nursery business in Rochester, New York. History of Ellwanger & Barry company, biographies of Ellwanger and Barry, biography of Joseph Harris of Moreton Farm, and history of 19th century Rochester fruit and flower plates.

Van Pelt, Helen Dupuy. "Henderson Llewelling: Pacific Pioneer Nurseryman;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vVI n3, Jul. 1945, pp 273-274.

Van Ravenswaay, Charles. Drawn from nature: the botanical art of Joseph Prestele and his sons. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984. Biography of the artist and lithographer, Joseph Prestele and his sons. Information on James Vick and Prestele's work with nurserymen's plate books.

Van Ravenswaay, Charles. A Nineteenth-Century Garden. New York: Universe Books, 1977. Twelve color plates and 20 black-and-white illustrations from books carried by American nursery salesmen from the mid- to late-nineteenth century are used to tell the story of the history of the nursery business in America.

"The Victorian Lady and Her Flowers;" American Heritage, v29 n5, Aug./Sep. 1978, pp 99-103. Pictorial showing many trade catalog covers.

"A Visit to White Marsh, Md.;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n12, Sep. 22, 1906, p 350. Description of a day spent at the R. Vincent, Jr. & Sons establishment.

"W. W. Rawson & Co., Boston;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n21, Nov. 24, 1906, pp 620, 627, 631. Description of company with photographs of the flower seed department, general seed department, store and reading room and new dahlias.

Waldron, Webb. "Turnips or Tulips: Which Are You Planting?" The American Magazine, vCXV n3, Mar. 1933, pp 51, 138-142. How David Burpee has introduced new plants and kept the Burpee Company going.

Walls, Nina de Angeli. Trade Catalogs in the Hagley Museum and Library. Wilmington, DE: Hagley Museum and Library, 1987. A description of the trade catalog collection in the Hagley Library that includes more than 18,000 catalogs.

White, Katharine S. Onward and Upward in the Garden. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, c 1979. A collection of fourteen garden pieces written for The New Yorker by the wife of E. B. White. These articles were critical reviews of the literature of garden catalogs from 1958 to 1970.

Whitmore, Lynn. "Memories: A Seed Company Retrospective;" Seed World, v128 n8, July 1990, pp 9-25. Short histories of 23 American seed companies, and a history of the French company, Vilmorin, the world's oldest seed company.

Wickersham, Virginia V. "Field Trip to the Ferry Morse Co. and Sunset Magazine;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vXXII n4, Oct. 1961, pp151-152.

Wilson, Alex. "Selling Seeds and Plants;" The Occasional, 1988, pp11-17. Highlights seed and nursery catalogs as research tools. Exhibition from the collection of the Nova Scotia Museum.

Woodburn, Elisabeth. "Horticultural Heritage: The Influence of U. S. Nurserymen;" Agricultural Literature: Proud Heritage--Future Promise: A Bicentennial Symposium, September 24-26, 1975. Washington, DC: Associates of the National Agricultural Library: sold by the Graduate School Press, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, c 1977. Prince nursery, John Bartram, Bernard M'Mahon, David Landreth, Patrick Barry, Andrew Jackson Downing, Thomas Bridgeman, Robert Buist, Grant Thorburn, Thomas Hibbert, Joseph Breck, and Thomas Meehan are discussed.

Wright, Richardson Little. The Story of Gardening, from the Hanging Gardens of Babylon to the Hanging Gardens of New York. Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing Co., 1938. Chapter XIV is called "The Rise of Gardening in America" and has a section on "The Initial Nurserymen." Landreth, M'Mahon, Thorburn and Prince nursery are discussed.

Compiled by Marca L. Woodhams, Librarian, Horticulture Branch Smithsonian Institution Libraries 1999