Friday, August 11, 2017

Seed Catalog from Cole's Seed Store, Pella, Iowa

Seed Catalog from Cole's Seed Store, Pella, Iowa

Aart Kool (1814-1892) married Heiltje-Hendrika "Henrietta" de Booy (1824-1901) in Pella, Iowa in 1848. Kool arrived in Pella, Iowa in 1847, with a group of Dutch emmigrants who moved to North America because of discontent over religious and economic matters. Aart KOOL, who farmed near Pella, anglicized the family name to Cole. The couple had a son Charles Nicholas Cole (1848-1947) who gained a reputation as a seedsman in Chicago working for the Vaughn Seed Company & then to New York & to Memphis to work for 2 more seed companies. In 1870, he returned to Pella to establish Cole's Seeds with his wife Etta Kruger Cole (1856-1953). He was joined by his brothers & the business was called Cole Bros Seed Company for several years.

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

1899 Livingston's Catalog from Columbus, Ohio

1899 Livingston's Catalog from Columbus, Ohio
Alexander W. Livingston was born on October 14, 1822, near Reynoldsburg, Ohio. He grew up on his family's farm & received limited schooling. He could read & write & do simple math problems. While still a child, Livingston showed an interest in seeds & plants, & many Reynoldsburg residents viewed him as an authority on these subjects. Upon reaching adulthood, Livingston married Matilda Dickey Graham. The couple had 10 children. In 1852, Livingston purchased 70 acres of land near Reynoldsburg. Here he developed A.W. Livingston Buckeye Seed Gardens, a seed business. His business quickly prospered. At this time, Livingston began to try to improve the tomato. He succeeded in doing so in 1870. Livingston spent two decades breeding his "Paragon" tomato. Tomatoes existed before Livingston, but they were small fruits with a sour taste. Livingston's Paragon was much larger & had a sweeter taste. Over the next 28 years, Livingston developed more than 30 other varieties of tomatoes. His work helped to make tomatoes more popular with American cooks. A scientist until the end of his life, Livingston died in 1898.
1822 - Founder Alexander W Livingston b in Reynoldsburg, OH 
1842 - Begins working for a local seed grower. 
1844 - Marries and leases land to begin farming.
1852 - Purchases his own land for a farm & seed business. 
1856 - Purchases 400 boxes of the Buckeye Garden Seed Company from Robert Robertson who was moving to Iowa.  During the late 1850s and early 1860s, business does well; and Livingston is able to expand his farming and seed operations. 
1864-65 - Builds a family home and consolidates seed and farming operations in one location. 
1875-76 - The Buckeye Garden Seed Company went bankrupt in the economic crash that affected many businesses in the nation. The business is dissolved and new entity formed by son Robert and named, "A. W. Livingston's Sons." Marketing was expanded using seed catalogs and advertising in newspapers and magazines. 
1880 - The company moves from Reynoldsburg to Columbus, Ohio. Alexander moves to Des Moines, Iowa after purchasing the farm of his friend Robert Robertson. Alexander's plan was to relocate the entire company to Iowa, but the business was prospering in Columbus under his son's management. 
1890 - After Alexander's wife passes away, he turned over the Iowa seed business to his son, Josiah. He returned to Ohio and began to work on his book, "Livingston and the Tomato." It was part autobiographical, part instructional, and part agricultural history. It combined information about Livingston's methods, the history of the tomato as a food crop, and even contained a large selection of compiled recipes. 
1898 - The company is incorporated as the Livingston Seed Company. Founder, A. W. Livingston passes away. 
1919 - The Livingstons were big players in the seed trade industry interacting with many major seed houses. They had their own grow outs as well as 'traded' stock. On April 1st, 1919, a fire broke out at one of their warehouses destroying everything. The McCullough's Sons Seed Company from Cincinnati, took the train up to Columbus the next day, gathered up what they could, and filled orders for the Livingstons. Even with their help, Livingstons still was forced to send out a form letter returning orders along with money.  
1930s - By the late 1930s, the seed industry had begun to change. The company survived by moving into field seeds, and dropped tomatoes from their line. 1937 - The United States Department of Agriculture's "Yearbook of Agriculture" for the year 1937 published the following short history: "The work of A. W. Livingston, of Columbus, Ohio, and his associates and successors in the Livingston Seed Co. has resulted in the introduction of more new varieties than that of any other private group. Most of the varieties introduced by the Livingstons were of their own finding or origination, but some were obtained from other growers. Paragon, from a chance seedling, was their first introduction (1870). The famous old variety Acme was developed by A. W. Livingston from a single superior plant found in a field of mixed stock and introduced in 1875. Like the Trophy, this variety was the source or served as one parent of many subsequently introduced varieties. In 1880 Perfection, a chance variant in Acme, was introduced. Livingston next brought out Golden Queen in 1882, Favorite in 1883, Beauty in 1886, Potato Leaf in 1887, Stone in 1889, and Royal Red in 1892. This last was developed from seven similar plants found in a field of Dwarf Champion by M. M. Miesse. The others just named were chance seedlings occurring in varieties the names of which are not known. These were followed by Aristocrat and Buckeye State in 1893, Honor Bright in 1897, and Magnus in 1900, as chance seedlings in varieties not recorded. In 1903 Dwarf Stone was introduced; it was a chance seedling found in Stone. Globe is from a cross between Stone and Ponderosa made about 1899 by Robert Livingston and was introduced in 1905. Hummer, another introduction, was selected out of Paragon. Of this impressive list introduced by the Livingstons, Stone and Globe are among the most important varieties grown today. Acme, Beauty, Buckeye State, Dwarf Stone, Golden Queen, and Perfection are still listed by some seed producers although they are not extensively grown." "With all due credit to the important contributions of other growers, seedsmen, and investigators, it is not out of place to call attention again to the great contribution of the Livingston Seed Co. to tomato improvement. Of about 40 varieties that had attained a distinct status prior to 1910, a third were productions or introductions by the Livingston company. If we add those varieties derived directly from Livingston productions and introductions, it appears that half of the major varieties were due to the abilities of the Livingstons to evaluate and perpetuate superior material in the tomato." 
1947 - The last wholesale catalog was produced. 

Tuesday, August 8, 2017

Bibliography of American Seed and Nursery Industry & their Trade Catalogs

"Alfred F. Conard;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n25, Dec. 22, 1906, p773. Obituary notice.

American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990.
Whole issue devoted to the "Life and Times in the [nursery] Industry."

Appleton"s Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887. James Vick is listed.

The Art of Gardening: Maryland Landscapes and the American Garden Aesthetic, 1730-1930: May-October, 1985, The Historical Society of Talbot County. Easton, MD: Historical Society of Talbot County, 1985. An exhibition on the role of gardening in the history of Maryland, included nursery and seed catalogs and advertising memorabilia.

Bailey, L. H. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture; A discussion, for the Amateur, and .... New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937. Biographies of horticulturists, pomologists, seedsmen, and nurserymen under the heading of 'Horticulturists.'

Baxter, Samuel Newman.  "The Nursery Catalog of a Century Back;" The Florists Exchange and Horticultural Trade World, vLX n18, Oct. 31, 1925, p1431. Catalog for Bartram's Botanic Garden, proprietor, Robert Carr, dated 1828.

Beans, Bruce E. "Seeds of Greatness: How the Burpee Empire Grew;" Inquirer (The Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine), Mar. 1, 1987, pp17-24. History of the Burpee company.

Benson, Albert Emerson. History of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. [Norwood, MA]: Printed for the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 1929. History of Society from 1830-1929. Lists officers of Society.

The Berckmans Collection at the Cherokee Garden Library, Atlanta, Georgia. This collection contains manuscripts, photographs, business records and personal memorabilia of Prosper Jules Alphonse Berckmans, Sr.

"Bernard McMahon;" The Oxford Companion to Gardens. Oxford; New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1986. Biography.

Birkby, Bob and Janice Nahra Friedel.  "Henry, Himself;" The Palimpsest, v64 n5, Sep./Oct. 1983, pp150-169. Biography of Henry Arms Field of Shenandoah, Iowa.

Block, Lori.  "A Century (or More!) And Counting;" American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990, pp78-102. A compendium of all the nursery businesses that have celebrated 100 years of continuous operation.

Boyd, James. A History of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1827-1927. Philadelphia: Printed for the Society, 1929. History of the Society broken up into seven different periods. Has biographies and portraits of officers that include many nurserymen and seedsmen and descriptions of gardens including nurseries.

Breckon, Gary.  "Lila's Nursery;" California Horticulture Society Journal, vXXVIII n3, Jul. 1967, pp193-196. History of a succulent nursery owned by Mrs. Lila Lillie and her mother, Mrs. Mary Belle Williams.

Brown, Thomas A., A List of California Nurseries and Their Catalogues 1850-1900. Petaluma, Calif. : T.A. Brown, 1993.

Bryan, Charles F., Jr. Seed for Thought. St. Louis, MO: St. Louis Mercantile Library, 1988. The catalog of an exhibition of early seed catalogues, horticultural manuals and illustrated books related to 19th and 20th century American gardening in the collection of the St. Louis Mercantile Library, in cooperation with the Missouri Botanical Garden Library, July 30-September 21, 1988.

Burbank, Luther. Luther Burbank, His Methods and Discoveries and Their Practical Application; Prepared....... New York; London: Luther Burbank Press, 1914-15. Twelve volumes taken from Burbank's original field notes made during forty years of research.

"Burnet Landreth;" The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Volume 24. Clifton, NJ: J. T. White, 1893-. Biography.

Burr, Charles J.  "The Berkeley Horticultural Nursery;" California Horticultural Journal, v34 n1, Jan. 1973, pp10-11. George Budgen, founder of nursery in 1922.

Burr, Charles J.  "The California Nursery: A History;" California Horticultural Journal, v31 n4, Oct. 1970, pp138-143. A history of one of the oldest nurseries in the West written six months after its demise in the spring of 1970.

Burr, Charles J. "Nurseries and Nurserymen --The Edenvale Nursery;" California Horticultural Journal, v33 n1, Jan. 1971, pp37, 39. History of Edenvale Nursery founded by C. E. Wilson and later owned by Frank Serpa.

Butterfield, Harry M.  "Builder's of California Horticulture, Part 1;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vXXII n1, Jan. 1961, pp2-7, 28. Information on William C. Walker, James Saul, United States Nursery, Juan Centre (John Center), Edward L. Reimers, Stephen Nolan, and the Shell Mound Nursery.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Builder's of California Horticulture, Part 2;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXII n3, Jul. 1961, pp102-107. Information on James Hutchison, W. F. Kelsey, Charles David Weber, Joseph Aram, Louis Prevost, Bernard S. Fox, Johann Felz, William C. Walker, William Wolfskill, Kate Sessions, Theodosia B. Shepherd, Carl Purdy, Edward O. Orpet, Luther Burbank, and C. C. Morse.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Carl Salbach--Plant Breeder and Nurseryman;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXI n4, Oct. 1950, pp172-176. Biography of Carl Salbach.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Early Horticulture in Northern and Central California;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXIX n1, Jan. 1968, pp30-32. Information on Frank Kunz, Peter Kunz, the Felix Gillet Nursery, Luther Burbank, and Carl Purdy.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Early Nurseries in the Eastern United States;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVII n2, Apr. 1966, pp42-56. Brief histories of 23 East Coast nurseries.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Horticultural Activity in the Santa Barbara Area;" California Horticultural Journal, vXXIX n2, Apr. 1968, pp49-50, 55. Biographies of Joseph Sexton (1842-1917), Kinton Stevens of The Palm and Citrus Nursery, Emanuele O. Fenzi, and Edward Owen Orpet.

Butterfield, Harry M. "The History of Ornamental Horticulture in California;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVI n2, Apr. 1965, pp 47-50. History starting with William C. Walker and his Golden Gate Nursery established in 1849.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Horticulture in the San Diego Area;" California Horticultural Journal, vXXX n2, Apr. 1969, pp62-63.
Short biographies of Kate Olivia Sessions (1857-1940) and Alfred D. Robinson, the founder of Rosecroft Begonia Gardens.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Pioneer Horticulturists in the Los Angeles Area;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXIX n3, Jul. 1968, pp 93-95. Information on Ozro B. Childs, Matthew Keller, Louis J. Stengel, John Grelck, E. D. Sturtevant, Eugene Germain, Aggeler and Musser Seed Company founded by Henry L. Musser in 1896, and Theodore Payne.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Some Pioneer Nurseries in California and their Plants, Part 1;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVII n3, Jul. 1966, pp 70-77. Information on James L. Lafayette Warren, William Neely Thompson, Julius K. Rose, C. V. Gillespie, J. Bryant Hill, E. L. Beard, William Connell Walker, John Center (Juan Centre), James and William O'Donnell, Henry Sonntag, J. O'Hare, Frederick A. Miller, Edward L. Reimer, S. W. Moore, F. Ludemann, Robert J. Trumbull, E. Meyer, Charles Abraham, and H. H. Berger.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Some Pioneer Nurseries in California and their Plants, Part 2;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVII n4, Oct. 1966, pp 102-108. Information on James Hutchison, William F. Kelsey, A. D. Pryal, Stephen Nolan and his Belle View Nursery, Lewelling Brothers, Domoto Brothers, H. Yoshiike of the Japanese Nursery, and Edward C. Gill.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Some Pioneer Nurseries in California and their Plants, Part 3;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVIII n1, Jan. 1967, pp 132-139. Short biographies of California nurserymen including William Mohr, Jemima Branin, John Rock, James Shinn, Sydney Bancroft Mitchell, Carl Salbach, Edward Oliver Essig, and Professor E. O. James.

Christiansen, Bess Gedney. "A Brief History of Seed Catalogs;" The Historical Gardener, v3 n3, Fall 1994, pp 4-5. Landreth, Thorburn, Downing, Vick's, and Ferry.

farmer seed packetChristopher, Thomas. "Flora Unbound;" House & Garden, v167 n9, September 1998, pp 146-148. The use of floral plates as decorative prints.

Christopher, Thomas. "Heirloom Seed Catalogs: Back Issues Yield Insights into the Origins of American Gardening;" Horticulture, v63 n12, December 1985, pp 24-27. A history of seed and nursery catalogs in America.

"Comstock, Ferre & Co., 1820-1980: Celebrating 160 Years in the Seed Business." History of the company, probably written by Mrs. Corinne W. Willard, wife of the president of the company in 1980.

Culbertson, Molly. "The Paper Garden;" Country Home, v12 issue 1, February 1990, pp81-85, 113 A discussion of lithography, the art of the seed catalogs, as well as a history of American seed companies.

"David Burpee;" The National Cyclopedia of American Biography. Clifton, NJ: J. T. White, 1893- Biography.

Dreyer, Peter. A Gardener Touched with Genius: The Life of Luther Burbank. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985. Biography of Luther Burbank.

"Early American Nurserymen and Seedsmen;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967, (February 1968) pp 75-76. One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

"Early American Seed Trade;" Grower Talks, v40 n3, July 1976, pp 1-15. This special bicentennial issue of Grower Talks gives a history of American horticulture. Grower Talks is published by Ball Publishing, part of George J. Ball Company, a flower seed breeding and distribution company.

Elisabeth Woodburn, Books. Catalogue #2 (New Series) - Seed & Nursery Catalogues. Hopewell, NJ: Elisabeth Woodburn, Books, January 1998. Catalog of important horticultural book dealer.

Elliott, Charles. "A. J. Downing, Garden Evangelist;" Horticulture, vLXXIII n9, Nov. 1995, pp 14-22. Downing's role as arbiter of taste.

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Annual Catalogue of Plants, Seeds, Trees, 1909.  San Francisco, CA: 1909. (Cat. 012950)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Ferry's Home Garden Catalogue.  San Francisco, CA: 1931. (Cat. 022551)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Morse's Garden Guide, 1915.  San Francisco, CA: 1915. (Cat. 015737)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Morse's Seeds Garden Guide, 1917 .  San Francisco, CA: 1917. (Cat. 016462)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Morse's Garden Guide, 1918.  San Francisco, CA: 1918. (Cat. 016422)

"Field, Henry;" The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Volume 47. Clifton, NJ: J. T. White, 1893-. Biography.

Fitzpatrick, John T. "An Overview of American Nursery and Seed Catalogues, 1771-1832;" Plants and People: The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife, Annual Proceedings, 24 and 25 June 1995; v20, 1996, pp 152-162. Reports on 21 representative catalogs published between 1771 and 1832. They are sources of information on plants, nurseries, and gardeners and give a record of what was being offered for sale at particular times and places.

Garden and Forest, v3, July 2, 1890, p 328. Obituary of Patrick Barry.

"George Ellwanger;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n22, Dec. 1, 1906, p 661. Obituary notice.

"George Ellwanger;" Proceedings of the Thirtieth Session of the American Pomological Society held on the exposition grounds at Jamestown, Virginia, Sept. 24-26, 1907. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1908. Obituary.

"Grant Thorburn;" The Gardener's Monthly and Horticultural Advertiser, vV, 1863, p 91. Obituary.

Hedrick, U. P. A History of Horticulture in America to 1860. Portland, OR: Timber Press, c 1988. A history of gardening, fruit growing, and viticulture. Plant explorers and botanic gardens, and plant breeding are covered.

Henderson, Alfred. Peter Henderson, Gardener, Author, Merchant: A Memoir. New York:  McIlroy & Emmet, 1890. Biography of Peter Henderson by his son.

Herringshaw, Thomas William, ed. Herringshaw's Encyclopedia of American Biography of the Nineteenth Century. Chicago, IL: American Publishers' Association, 1905. Grant Thorburn is listed.

Higginbotham, Julie S. "Four Centuries of Planting and Progress: A History of the U. S. Nursery Industry;" American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990, pp 36-59. Summarizes the U. S. nursery industry, from its pre-Colonial roots to 1990. Includes a chronology starting in 1565 to 1990.

Higginbotham, Julie S. "The Greening of a Continent;" American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990, pp 62-63. Regional look at the nursery industry.

"The History of U. S. Floriculture;" Greenhouse Grower, v17 n10, Fall 1999, pp 28-37. History of Ball Seed Co., Goldsmith Seeds, Novartis Seeds, Bodger Seeds, Sakata Seed, Takii & Co., Benary Seed, Daehnfeldt, Waller Flowerseed, W. Atlee Burpee, Park Seed, Harris Seeds, Henry F. Michell Co., Grimes Seeds, Fred C. Gloeckner & Co., and Express Seed Co.

good crops seed packetHollingsworth, Buckner. "Theodosia Burr Shepherd, 1845-1906;" Her Garden was Her Delight. New York: Macmillan, 1962. Biography largely taken from an unpublished biography by Shepherd's daughter.

"The House of Thorburn, New York--An Interesting History;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n15, Oct. 13, 1906, p 441. History of Thorburn Co., New York, New York.

Hutton, R. J. "Robert Pyle--A Life Devoted to Roses;" The American Rose Magazine, vXXXI n20, Aug 1992, p 11. Biography of Pyle with emphasis on his work with the American Rose Society.

Ilgenfritz Nurseries, Inc. Monroe Nursery.  Ilgenfritz Garden Styles for '53.  Monroe, MI: 1953. (Cat. 021707)

Indiana Horticultural Society. Transactions of the Indiana Horticultural Society for the year 1908. Indianapolis: W. B. Burford, 1909. List of nurseries in Indiana on official inspection list for 1908. Biography of Andrew Hampton, pioneer nurseryman of Indiana.

"John Scheepers & Company, New York;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n19, Nov. 10, 1906. Brief history of John Scheepers & Co.

Kellen, Vince. "200 Years of the Right Stuff;" Florists' Review, v173 n4485, Nov. 17, 1983, pp 46-47. History of Landreth's, America's oldest seed company.

Keller, Kenneth W. "Merchandising Nature: The H. J. Weber and Sons Nursery," Missouri Historical Review, v89 n3, April 1995, pp 307-326. The author, a professor of history at Mary Baldwin College in Staunton, Virginia, is the great-grandson of Henry J. Weber.

Kelsey Nursery Service.  Safe Autumn Planting Catalog no. 166, 174, 178.  Highlands, NJ: 1960-1966. (cat. 024074-024076)

Kelsey Nursery Service.  Short Guide to the Best Varieties of Trees... Catalog no. 165, 167, 171, 173, 177, 179.  Highlands, NJ: 1960-1967. (cat. 024097-024102)

King, Louisa Yeomans. Pages from a garden note-book. New York: Scribner, 1921. Chapter XII is "A Review of the American Seed Catalogue." This chapter was written in 1916 as an article in a popular journal. There is mention of Vaughan; Dreer; Farquhar; Palisades Nurseries of Sparkill, New York; Peter Henderson; Burpee; Bobbink & Atkins; Michell's (of Philadelphia); John Lewis Childs; Henry Field of Shenandoah, Iowa; Weeber & Don of New York; Henry Dawson of Eastern Nurseries, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts; Moon of Morrisville, Pennsylvania; Hicks; Ellwanger and Barry; Klehm's Nurseries, Andorra Nurseries; Hill of Dundee, Illinois; California Nursery Company of Niles, California; Julius Roehrs; Good & Reese of Springfield, Ohio; Frederick H. Horsford of Charlotte, Vermont; Storrs & Harrison; Farr's of Wyomissing, Pennsylvania; E. G. Hill Company of Richmond, Indiana; Conard & Jones; etc.

Kraft, Ken. Garden to Order. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1963.
History of Burpee Co.

Kraft, Ken and Pat. "Seeds for Sale;" Country Living Gardener, v1 n1, Spring/Summer 1993, pp 30-31. How America's seed houses got their start.

"Landreth, Cuthbert;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

"Landreth, David;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

"Landreth, David, Jr.;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

Lees, Carlton B. "The Golden Age of Horticulture;" Historic Preservation, v24 n4, October-December 1972, pp 32-37. A discussion of horticulture in 19th century America.

Leighton, Ann. American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: "For Use or For Delight." Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976. Chapter 12 is titled "Catalogues and Lists." Information on John Bartram, William Prince, and Bernard M'Mahon.

Leighton, Ann. American Gardens in the Nineteenth Century: "For Comfort and Affluence." Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1987. Chapter 5 is titled "Seedsmen and Their Nurseries." Information on Bernard M'Mahon, Joseph Breck, Thomas and Alfred Bridgeman, Robert Buist, Thomas Meehan, Peter Henderson, Charles Mason and Phineas Brown Hovey.

"Lewis Chase;" Proceedings of the Thirty-third Biennial Session of the American Pomological Society held in Washington, D. C., November 17-21, 1913. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1914. Obituary.

"List of Nurserymen, Florists, and Seedsmen;" American Horticultural Annual, 1868, p159-164. A list of "only those who have sent circulars or business cards, and those who advertise in the horticultural journals."

Lowe, Jeannette. "Burpee's Celebrates Its Centennial, 1876-1976;" Flower & Garden, v20 n3, Mar. 1976, pp26-29, 45. History of the Burpee company by a staff horticulturist.

Mack, Richard N. "Catalog of Woes: Some of Our Most Troublesome Weeds Were Dispersed Through the Mail;" Natural History, Mar. 1990, pp 44-53. Article about weeds, but illustrated with old seed and nursery catalog covers.

"Made Wild by Pompous Catalogs;" American Horticulture, v70 n1, January 1991, p 1-2. In 1850, the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher protested the proliferation of posters, seed boxes, trade cards, and catalogs with lavish illustrations, thus the quote "made wild by pompous catalogs." A short history of illustrations in seed and nursery catalogs.

Mahurin, Carl. "Carl Purdy;" California Horticultural Society Journal, v2 n4, Oct. 1941, p 196-207. Biography.

Manks, Dorothy S. "How the American Nursery Trade Began;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967 (February 1968).
One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

The Mayflower. Floral Park, New York: Mayflower Pub. Co., 188?
John Lewis Childs was the owner and editor of this magazine.

McGourty, Frederick, Jr. "Long Island's Famous Nurseries;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967 (February 1968), pp 58-61, 82.
One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

McIntosh, W. H. History of Monroe County, New York: with Illustrations Descriptive of its Scenery, Palatial Residences, Public Buildings, Fine Blocks and Important Manufactories, from Original Sketches by Artists of the Highest Ability. Philadelphia: Everts, Ensign & Everts, 1877. History of Mount Hope Nurseries; James Vick, Seedsman and Florist with engravings of Vick's Flower Farm; and Briggs Seed House. Also history of artists and lithographers in Rochester, New York.

McKelvey, Blake. "The Flower City: Center of Nurseries and Fruit Orchards;" Rochester Historical Society Publications, v18 pt.2, 1940, pp 121-169. A history of the early nurseries in Rochester, New York and their contribution to the horticultural development of Western New York and to the rest of the world as well.

Meehan, S. Mendelson, ed. "A Brief Sketch of the Life of Thomas Meehan;" Meehans' Monthly, A Magazine of Horticulture, Botany and Kindred Subjects, Volume 12 , Jan. 1902, pp 13-19. Biography.

Mitich, Larry W. "The World of A. Blanc;" Cactus & Succlent Journal (U.S.), vXLV, 1973, pp158-170. Description of A. Blanc's interest in cactus and how his hobby eventually expanded into the world's largest cactus nursery.

Mitich, Larry W. "The World of A. Blanc, Part II;" Cactus & Succlent Journal (U.S.), vXLV, 1973, pp 203-213.

Mitich, Larry W. "The World of A. Blanc, Part III (conclusion);" Cactus & Succlent Journal (U.S.), vXLV, 1973, pp 259-269.

"M'Mahon, Bernard;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

Morey, Dick. "The Most Complete 'Hort' House in the U.S.A.: Vaughan-Jacklin Corporation...Beautify America Since 1876;" Nursery Business, v25 n4, April 1980, pp 50-51,54,68-69,76,80,94.
A history of this Chicago area company.

"Mrs. Theodosia B. Shepherd;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n12, Sep. 22, 1906, pp 346-347. Obituary notice and tribute.

Navlet, Arthur E. "Visiting the Flower Seed Farms of California;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vIX n2, Apr. 1948, pp 86-90. Visits of flower seed buyers are described.

Naylor, Harriett Julia. "Rochester's Agricultural Press: A Mirror of Genesee Country Life;" Rochester Historical Society Publications, v18 pt.2, 1940, pp 170-200. Some of Rochester's seedsmen and nurserymen were owners, editors or writers of Rochester's agricultural press, including Charles Crosman, James Vick, Joseph Harris, and Patrick Barry.

Neal, Steve. "David Burpee;" Dictionary of American Biography: Supplement 10 (1976-1980), 80-82. Biography.

Nguyen, Chris. "The Promise of Spring: Available by Mail Order;" Horizon: The Learning Section (The Washington Post), Wednesday, Jan. 10, 1996. History of the Burpee company.

Norcross, Marjorie R. "Cataloging America's Cultural Roots;" Cornell Plantations, v47 n1, 1992, pp15-22. A discussion of how American values were tied to American horticulture in seed catalogs. "To turn the pages of nineteenth century seed and nursery catalogs is to pursue a home course of art appreciation, ethics, politics, landscaping, domestic arts, and of course, horticulture."

"Nurserymen, Florists, Seedsmen, and Dealers in Horticultural Stock;" American Horticultural Annual, 1871, pp140-152
A list comprised of the "names of those who have sent us catalogues, etc., and those who advertise in the leading journals."

Oberle, Stephanie Ginsberg. "The Influence of Thomas Meehan on Horticulture in the United States;" Germantown Crier, v49 n1, Spring 1999, pp 4-25. Scholarly paper on Meehan with footnotes and photographs.

One hundred years of trust, 1884-1984. Minneapolis, MN: Northrup King Co., 1984. History of the Northrup King Co., one of the largest seed companies in the world, written for it=s centennial.

Orpet, Mildred Selfridge. "E. O. Orpet, Horticulturist;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vXIII n2, Apr. 1952, pp 39-52.

Park's Floral Magazine. LaPark, Pennsylvania: Geo. W. Park, 1871-1925. George W. Park was editor and publisher of this magazine.

Parks, Dan. "The Cultivation of Flower City;" Rochester History, vXLV Nos. 3 & 4, Jul. and Oct. 1983, pp 25-47. The story of entrepreneurs in horticulture in Rochester, New York. Includes nurserymen: Naaman Goodsell, Asa Rowe, George Ellwanger and Patrick Barry; and seedsmen: James Vick, C. F. Crosman, Joseph Harris, Briggs Brothers, and William H. Reid.

"Patrick Barry;" Annals of Horticulture in North America for the Year 1890. New York: Rural Publishing Company, 1891. Obituary for Patrick Barry of the firm Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, New York.

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, Philadelphia. From Seed to Flower: Philadelphia, 1681-1876: A Horticultural Point of View. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1976. Exhibition catalog for an exhibition put together for the bicentennial. "...a display of books and artifacts written, published, and used by Philadelphians in the last half of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth centuries."

"Profile: David Burpee, President, W. Atlee Burpee Co.;" Delaware Valley Announcer, v36 n4, Apr. 1963, pp 25-26, 49. Biography.

"Prosper Julius A. Berckmans;" Proceedings of the Thirty-second Session of the American Pomological Society held at Tampa, Florida, February 9, 10 and 11, 1911. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1912.

Raver, Ann. "Where Burpee First Tilled;" The New York Times, Sunday, August 23, 1992. History of Burpee Co. and visit to Fordhook Farms with George C. Ball, owner of Burpee.

Reilly, Ann. "Lessons of the Farm: The David Burpee Story;" Nursery Business, v24 n1, Jan. 1979, pp50-52, 57, 65. History of W. Atlee Burpee Company and David Burpee's role in the company.

"Research Inspires 134-Year-Old Vegetable Giant;" Seed World, v128 n12, November 1990, pp21-23. A history of Ferry-Morse Seed Company.

Reynolds, George.  "Seedsmen to a Growing Country;" New York-Pennsylvania Collector, March 1990, pp 15C-17C.
The early history of the seed and nursery industry in Rochester, New York ("The Flower City").

"Robert Buist;" The Gardener's Monthly and Horticulturist, vXXII n264, December 1880, pp 372-374. An obituary of Robert Buist.

"Robert Scott;" Meehans' Monthly, A Magazine of Horticulture, Botany and Kindred Subjects, vVI, September 1896, pp178. An obituary of Robert Scott.

Rochester Directory of Nurserymen, Seedsmen and Florists of the United States and Canada: Giving Classified List of Names and Addresses, Alphabetically Arranged. Rochester, New York:
Rochester Lithographing Co., 1893-.

Rockwell, F. F. "Flowers for the Forty Million: An Interview with David Burpee by F. F. Rockwell;" Home Arts--Needlecraft, Jan. 1938. Burpee's work developing new flowers at his plant laboratories at Floradale, California, and Fordhook Farms, Doylestown, Pennsylvania.

Rogier, June M. Andersen Horticultural Library: the first 25 years. Chanhassen, MN: Andersen Horticultural Library, c1996. Two chapters on their seed and nursery catalog collection.

Rogier, June. "Catalogs Link Gardeners Across 2 Centuries;" Arboretum News, v17 n1, January-February 1998, pp 1,6.
A description of the collection of catalogs (200,000 items) in the Andersen Horticultural Library at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. Describes some Minnesota seedswomen's and nurserymen's catalogs.

Rust, David. "Among the Growers: Henry A. Dreer, Inc., Riverton, N. J.;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n18, Nov. 3, 1906, p 534.
The author's visit to the Dreer establishment.

Sarudy, Barbara Wells. Gardens and Gardening in the Chesapeake, 1700-1805. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
Chapter four is "Seeds and Plants" and has information on early seedsmen and nurserymen. Chapter ten has information on Bernard M'Mahon.

Sarudy, Barbara Wells. "Nurserymen and Seed Dealers in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake;" Journal of Garden History, v9 n3, July-September 1989, pp 111-117.

Sarudy, Barbara Wells. "South Carolina Seed Merchants and Nurserymen Before 1820;" Magnolia; Bulletin of the Southern Garden History Society, vVII n3 Winter 1992 p 6-10.

Saul, John A. "Tree Culture, or a Sketch of Nurseries in the District of Columbia;" Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D. C., v10, 1907, pp 38-62. A history of nurseries and nurserymen in the District of Columbia including the author's grandfather John Saul.

"Seed Trade in America--Before the ASTA;" Seed World, v121 n6, May 1983, pp 21-22. A history of the seed industry in America before the American Seed Trade Association which was established by C. W. Crosman of Rochester, New York.

corn - seed packetShepherd, Theodosia B.  ...California Flowers, Plants, Seeds, Bulbs, Palms, Orchids, Cacti.  Ventura-By-The-Sea, CA: 1895.  (Cat. 008830).

Sinclair, Ward. "Send Seeds: Why the relentless mail order seed catalogue is about as American a document as there is;" The Washington Post Magazine, April 6, 1986, pp 6-13. A description of the collection of trade catalogs at the National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland and the catalog seed business in America today.

Slosson, Elvenia, comp. Pioneer American Gardening. New York: Coward-McCann, 1951. A collection of American horticultural stories contributed by members of forty-one states with federated gardeners that form the National Council of State Garden Clubs.

"Some American Seedsmen and Nurserymen;' Annals of Horticulture in North America for the Year 1899. New York: Rural Publishing Company, 1890. List of catalogs that had been received in the editor's office during the year of 1899.

Steffek, Edwin F. "Robert Pyle;" Dictionary of American Biography: Supplement 5 (1951-1956), pp 555-556. Biography.

Success with Flowers. West Grove, Pennsylvania: The Dingee & Conard Co., Oct. 1890-June 1904. Alfred Fellenberg Conard and Charles Dingee were owners and editors.

Templin, L., & Sons.  Bargains in Seeds, Plants, Vines, Bulbs, Etc.  Calla, OH: 1898.  (Cat. 017690)

Templin, L., & Sons.  Templin's Ideal Seeds, Bulbs, Plants, Etc. 1903, 1904.  Calla, OH: 1903-1904.  (Cat. 011022-011023)

Terry, Dickson. The Stark Story: Stark Nurseries 150th Anniversary. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Historical Society, 1966.
History of Stark Brothers Nurseries and Orchards Company, Louisiana, Missouri.

"Theodore S. Hubbard;" Proceedings of the Thirtieth Session of the American Pomological Society held on the exposition grounds at Jamestown, Virginia, Sept. 24-26, 1907. Cleveland, Ohio: merican Pomological Society, 1908. Obituary.

"Thomas Meehan;" Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh Session of the American Pomological Society held in Buffalo, N. Y., Sept. 12-13, 1901. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1902.
Obituary. Thomas Meehan was the First Vice-President of the Society.

"Thomas Meehan, 19th Century Plantsman;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967 (February 1968), pp 81, 85. One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

"Thomas Volney Munson;" Proceedings of the Thirty-third Biennial Session of the American Pomological Society held in Washington, D. C., November 17-21, 1913. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1914. Obituary.

Thorburn, Grant. Forty Years' Residence in America; or, the Doctrine of a Particular Providence Exemplified in the Life of Grant Thorburn. Written by Himself. Boston: Russell, Odiorne & Metcalf, 1834. "...whom in the name of wonder, has a better right to publish a man's life, than himself?" An autobiography.

Tice, Patricia M. Gardening in America, 1830-1910. Rochester, NY: The Strong Museum, 1984. "Gardening in America," an exhibit and a book presents the origins of American's love of gardening and their changing tastes in gardening.

"Tributes to the Late George Ellwanger;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n23, Dec. 8, 1906, p 695. Tributes from the daily papers of Rochester, New York.

Tucker, David M. Kitchen Gardening in America: A History. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, c1993. Chapter 6: Seed Catalogues and Straight Rows.

seed packet - RossTuten, James H. "David Burpee;" American National Biography, Volume 22. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Biography.

University of Rochester. Library Bulletin. vXXXV 1982.
Entire volume devoted to the seed and nursery business in Rochester, New York. History of Ellwanger & Barry company, biographies of Ellwanger and Barry, biography of Joseph Harris of Moreton Farm, and history of 19th century Rochester fruit and flower plates.

Van Pelt, Helen Dupuy. "Henderson Llewelling: Pacific Pioneer Nurseryman;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vVI n3, Jul. 1945, pp 273-274.

Van Ravenswaay, Charles. Drawn from nature: the botanical art of Joseph Prestele and his sons. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984. Biography of the artist and lithographer, Joseph Prestele and his sons. Information on James Vick and Prestele's work with nurserymen's plate books.

Van Ravenswaay, Charles. A Nineteenth-Century Garden. New York: Universe Books, 1977. Twelve color plates and 20 black-and-white illustrations from books carried by American nursery salesmen from the mid- to late-nineteenth century are used to tell the story of the history of the nursery business in America.

"The Victorian Lady and Her Flowers;" American Heritage, v29 n5, Aug./Sep. 1978, pp 99-103. Pictorial showing many trade catalog covers.

"A Visit to White Marsh, Md.;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n12, Sep. 22, 1906, p 350. Description of a day spent at the R. Vincent, Jr. & Sons establishment.

"W. W. Rawson & Co., Boston;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n21, Nov. 24, 1906, pp 620, 627, 631. Description of company with photographs of the flower seed department, general seed department, store and reading room and new dahlias.

Waldron, Webb. "Turnips or Tulips: Which Are You Planting?" The American Magazine, vCXV n3, Mar. 1933, pp 51, 138-142. How David Burpee has introduced new plants and kept the Burpee Company going.

Walls, Nina de Angeli. Trade Catalogs in the Hagley Museum and Library. Wilmington, DE: Hagley Museum and Library, 1987. A description of the trade catalog collection in the Hagley Library that includes more than 18,000 catalogs.

White, Katharine S. Onward and Upward in the Garden. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, c 1979. A collection of fourteen garden pieces written for The New Yorker by the wife of E. B. White. These articles were critical reviews of the literature of garden catalogs from 1958 to 1970.

Whitmore, Lynn. "Memories: A Seed Company Retrospective;" Seed World, v128 n8, July 1990, pp 9-25. Short histories of 23 American seed companies, and a history of the French company, Vilmorin, the world's oldest seed company.

Wickersham, Virginia V. "Field Trip to the Ferry Morse Co. and Sunset Magazine;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vXXII n4, Oct. 1961, pp151-152.

Wilson, Alex. "Selling Seeds and Plants;" The Occasional, 1988, pp11-17. Highlights seed and nursery catalogs as research tools. Exhibition from the collection of the Nova Scotia Museum.

Woodburn, Elisabeth. "Horticultural Heritage: The Influence of U. S. Nurserymen;" Agricultural Literature: Proud Heritage--Future Promise: A Bicentennial Symposium, September 24-26, 1975. Washington, DC: Associates of the National Agricultural Library: sold by the Graduate School Press, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, c 1977. Prince nursery, John Bartram, Bernard M'Mahon, David Landreth, Patrick Barry, Andrew Jackson Downing, Thomas Bridgeman, Robert Buist, Grant Thorburn, Thomas Hibbert, Joseph Breck, and Thomas Meehan are discussed.

Wright, Richardson Little. The Story of Gardening, from the Hanging Gardens of Babylon to the Hanging Gardens of New York. Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing Co., 1938. Chapter XIV is called "The Rise of Gardening in America" and has a section on "The Initial Nurserymen." Landreth, M'Mahon, Thorburn and Prince nursery are discussed.

Compiled by Marca L. Woodhams, Librarian, Horticulture Branch Smithsonian Institution Libraries 1999

Monday, August 7, 2017

J. Steckler Seed Co.of Mary T Frotscher, Catalog from New Orleans, LA

 J. Steckler Seed Co.of Mary T Frotscher, Catalog from New Orleans, LA.   Richard Frotscher was born in Germany in 1833, arrived in the USA by 1860 census in New Orleans, where he lived with his wife Emily Schwalm and their 6 daughters until his death in 1896. "Joseph Steckler, vice president and manager of the J. Steckler Seed Co., Ltd., of New Orleans, was born February 18, 1870, in New Iberia, LA. When quite young he went to New Orleans where he grew up and received his early business training in the seed establishment of his uncle, the late Richard Frotscher. When only 17 years of age Joseph became the business manager of the Gravier Street Seed Store, and so remained until 1896. In that year occurred his uncle's death, and at that time the J. Steckler Seed Co., Ltd., was organized with the following officers: Miss Mary T. Frotscher, president; Joseph Steckler, vice president and manager, and Richard P. Steckler, secretary-treasurer. While starting with only a part of their predecessor's business, the present company has grown to be one of the largest of its kind in the south. They have maintained a reputation of supplying only the best, being both growers and importers. Mr. Steckler is prominently associated with all that pertains to the trade. Only recently he has accepted the appointment as treasurer of the Interstate Horticultural Society. He was formerly president of the New Orleans Horticultural Society, and is a member of the Gardeners' Mutual Protective Association, American Seed Trade Association, and a commissioner of the City Park and Improvement Association."  American Florist, Volume 26. Associated Floral Publishing Company, 1906.

Sunday, August 6, 2017

Impact of Seeds, Immigration, & Nativism on California Farms in 1920

California Immigrants
In the United States, the Old Immigrant Wave happened around 1815-1865. The majority of these immigrants were from Northern & Western Europe. The influx of immigrants caused many native born Americans to become anti-immigrant, & some Irish faced discrimination because of their Catholic religion. Many of the immigrants came from Ireland, because their country suffered major famine in the 1800s. About 1/3 of immigrants during this time came from Ireland (4.5 million Irish migrated to the U.S. between 1820 & 1930). Most Irish immigrants settled near their point of arrival in cities along the East Coast. In the 1800s there were about 5 million German immigrants who sailed to the United States. Many of these German immigrants moved from the Atlantic coast to the West to buy farms. These immigrants also settled in cities like Milwaukee, St. Louis, & Cincinnati. Many Asian immigrants settled in California because of the railroad expansion & the California gold rush. About 25, 000 Chinese had immigrated by the early 1850s & settled in California. 

Chinese in a strawberry field, Pajaro Valley, California. California farmers hired large numbers of ethnic laborers from across the Pacific to plant, cultivate, pick, & pack their crops. They employed Chinese men to work the land until Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882), which stopped these laborers from immigrating. Growers then brought in Japanese workers. By 1900, the small agricultural town of  Watsonville counted 400 Japanese among its few thousand residents. In the 1920s, when Japanese immigration was restricted, California  agriculturalists became more dependent on Filipino & closer Mexican workers. With each new round of hiring, growers helped change the ethnic composition of California. Thrse immigrants often went on to rent & buy local acreages to plant & farm for themselves & their families.

The New Immigrant Wave in the United States took place around 1880-1920. Most of these immigrants came from Central, Eastern, & Southern Europe. By 1920, there were around 4 million Italian immigrants. The immigrants in this wave were often less skilled & illiterate, which caused many Americans (especially the Anglo-Saxon Protestant population) to join the anti-immigrant sentiment. These Americans feared that these new immigrants would take jobs away from native born Americans, because they would work for less money.
Irish Immigrants
After World War I ended in 1918, millions of distraught & displaced Europeans sought refuge in America. With the new wave of immigration came the resurgence of nativism (emphasis of traditional customs & opposition to outside influences). Most American citizens were disillusioned by the carnage of the war in Europe & clung to the old, comfortable policy of isolationism. Many denounced un-American lifestyles & turned their backs on immigrants.   
Japanese immigrants in a strawberry field with orchard, Pajaro Valley, California

Your Neighbor, the Foreigner from The Pacific Rural Press, Volume 101. 1921

When a local farm is sold or "rented, do you worry for fear some foreigner has taken it? Every native-born American farmer does, & he will continue to worry, for more & more foreigners are arriving & quietly alighting & folding their wings on the farms up & down the road. 

"Some say that the “old timer" is going, but go yourself to Sutter, Tulare, San Diego, or any of the foothill & mountain counties & you will find plenty of them left on the land. Then, too, in Southern California, & as far north as Fresno, the more or less newly arrived "Easterner" is increasing the American farm population. About 65,000 farms are now in the hands of American farmers in California.

"There are close to 100,000 farms in California today. About 35,000 of these are operated by foreigners, 1/3 oriental-controlled & 2/3 controlled by European races; 1/3 owned by foreigners & 2/3 rented. The orientals rent close to 95 % of their holdings, & the average renting of the other nationalities amounts to about 50 %. Orientals operate about 1/10, & the Portuguese nearly another 10th of all the farms in the State. The total number of rented farms in California is placed between 20-25 %.

"The 2nd largest group of foreign-owned or operated farms are those of the Portuguese, estimated at about 80—70% rented... They, too, are scattered from one end of the Coast Range & central valley to the other, & throughout Southern California. They are strong along our northern coast, Humboldt & Siskyou counties, in dairying; all through the San Francisco Bay counties & down the western side of the San Joaquin Valley from Martinez to Hanford. Between Tracy & Los Banos they have nearly 80% of the alfalfa & dairy ranches, & the Portuguese population around Crow's Landing reaches the highest figure in the state, being about 90%. They are fast going into fruit-raising since 1918, especially in Santa Clara, Stanislaus & Merced counties. From Monterey county south along the coast & then through Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange & San Diego counties, about 1/3 of the beans, beets, & grain is raised by these people. Their main concentrated settlements are near San Leandro, Haywards, Watsonville, central Stanislaus county, Merced & along the entire “west side." Ninety percent of the Portuguese come from the Azores & Canary Islands & not directly from Portugal. The 1st settlers came to San Francisco 40 years ago'as sailors...Among the Portuguese there is probably the largest percentage of non-English-reading populations which are American-born. More than any other of the Anglo-Saxon or Latin races here, with the exception of the Armenians & Russian-Germans, they remain clannish & among themselves. They are so many in number that this is emphasized. The Portuguese are California's best example of staying by one thing—dairying.

The 3rd largest foreign group are the Armenians, controlling about 3000 farms — 20% rented, & mostly in Fresno county. Their leaders 1st came to Fresno 30 years ago. 

"The Swiss-Italian can be found anywhere that dairies are located. One of their 1st stamping grounds was Humboldt county, where they began about 10 years ago to replace the original Scandinavian community founded 40 years ago. The last 3 years have seen Portuguese commence to replace them there because they can live cheaper & pay-higher rents. These Swiss have since then been drifting south into Marin county, where there have always been many. Their main concentration points were started 20 years ago & are in Monterey county at Soledad & Gonzales... They are scattered all through the coast & valley counties south from San Francisco, especially in San Luis Obispo & Santa Barbara counties, & are strong in the southern counties in dairy communities. The Swiss, no matter whether German-Swiss, French-Swiss, Austrian-Swiss, or Swiss-Italian, is one of California’s finest citizens. There are many of each kind & each one speaks a different language. They operate perhaps 2500 farms - 50% rented.

"The Italians we have come from Italy. Yet, no matter where they started from, the Alps or Sicily, they pan out well here, becoming Americanized quickly. The north Italians are nearly all vineyardists. Ninety-five% of the Sonoma & Napa county wine grape vineyards are operated by Italians, or have the labor furnished by them. Many Sicilians are in Madera county vineyards. Kern county is their latest settling place, going in for cotton & field crops. As a rule, the central & south Italian people go in for truck gardening, & can be found around every large town or city. They have built a unique mon0poly in southern San Mateo county around Halfmoon Bay, where they control 05% of the artichoke crop & form 50% of the population. The Italian can be found in little hill country communities the State over, & he is on the increase. At present they operate about 4,000 farms, mostly small & 50% rented. As with most foreign communities, some own 90 to 99% of their places & in other communities 90 to 95% are renters, depending largely on how well each community has done as a whole.

"The Russian-German colonies each have a different history of their founding. Some came here from the old country 15 years ago & others have since come in from the Dakotas & Nebraska & are coming very fast today. Until recently they have been at a standstill, not spreading out. Now they operate about 1500 ranches — 15% rented. Southern Sacramento & northern San Joaquin counties have large settlements engaged in general farming, grape & fruit growing. Especially is this true at Lodi, where they are now displacing old German families. Many are located at Kerman in Fresno county, & their holdings extend in a large semi-circle north & east of Fresno, through Clovis, Sanger & Reedley. They are engaged in cotton growing in Kern county at Shatter. Everywhere they are good farmers & adapted to any kind of farming; are thrifty, "but keep to their own society, not even associating with low or high Germans, who speak about the same tongue."

"Many of California's old settlers have been Swedes & Danes. Today they are scattered evenly over the State, & are seldom renters. There are 2 predominant Scandinavian settlements here to which all the new arrivals come — Turlock in Stanislaus county & Kingsburg in Fresno county. At Turlock, & in fact throughout Stanislaus county, they are general farmers & dairymen. Here they are slowly being replaced by Portuguese. At Kingsburg they are raisin & peach growers. There is a growing poultry-raising settlement at Petaluma. They operate perhaps 2,000 farms & rent only 10% of them, & are strong supporters of any co-operative or association movements.

"There are a few hundred Spaniards here. They originally came to Suisun to work in the cement factory & for the last 8 years have drifted into farming. Their main settlement is at Vacaville, though some are in Stanislaus county. Practically all are laborers, moving from the asparagus in the islands to early fruit at Vacaville & ending with prunes in the Santa Clara Valley.

"At present the Hollanders here are few & scattered, but have collected largely in southern San Joaquin county & are engaged in general farming. They operate but a few hundred farms.

"The British are scattered throughout every branch of agriculture & are particularly numerous in fruit & vineyards in Sonoma & Napa counties; in Marin county — largely Irish — & in citrus in southern California.

"The Germans, French & Russians, like the Italians, Swiss, Hollanders & British, are so much like Americans they are lost in the shuffle & are soon counted as Americans. They are scattered & in every line of farm industry. Poles, Czechs, Hungarians, JugoSlavs & Greeks are increasing. They settle in Sacramento, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Santa Clara, Fresno & Los Angeles counties & are narrowly restricted to fruit growing. About 1000 ranches are operated by these people, 30% rented.

"The Japs are by far the greatest class of foreign farm operators, renting or controlling about 10,000 farms 95% rented. The Hindus have come with the Japs. Today they are found in the rice belt of the Sacramento Valley, where they supply 30% of the farm labor, & the Jap forms another 30%.

"Americanization is the answer to most of foreign farm population troubles of today. The Asiatics can never be assimilated, but the others can be & will be, so why not go in stronger for Americanization today? Already the 2nd generation of all the European races are becoming indistinguishable from the offspring of our “old timers."

Saturday, August 5, 2017

Johnson & Stokes Seed Catalog of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1901

Johnson & Stokes Seed Catalog of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1901
Walter P Stokes joined the Seed Company, owned by Herbert W Johnson, Republican Sheriff of Camden County, NJ, since 1876, in Merchantville, & it was renamed the Johnson & Stokes Seed Company in 1881. The enterprise was dissolved in 1906, & Walter Stokes resumed operating under his previous business name as Stokes' Standard Seeds & then as Stokes Seed Company. Walter P Stokes was born on June 4, 1856, in Pennsylvania, his father was Isaac & his mother was Mary. He married Anna N R Smedley, & they had 2 children. He then married Anna Taylor, & they had one son.   Walter P. Stokes, for many years engaged in the seed trade in Philadelphia, Pa., & a prominent member of the Society of Friends, died suddenly of heart disease on July 1, 1916; while on a fishing trip in Maine, & was buried in Upper Darby, PA.  Mr. Stokes resided in Moorestown, N.J. Walter P. Stokes was head of the tree commission of Moorestown, first president of the Moorestown Field Club, a member of the board of directors of the Friends hospital, Frankford, & of the Cheyney Institute for Colored Youth. He was a member of the Northfleld Country Club, Atlantic City, & the City Club, Philadelphia. He was a past president of the American Seed Trade Association & was widely known in the trade throughout the country. In 1916, the firm was taken over by Walter's son, Francis C. Stokes, a Rutgers horticultural alumnus, with a national reputation as a dynamic young seedsman who was responsible for developing some of the famous New Jersey tomatoes of the early 1900's. Reportedly, he was the 1st American seedsman to offer seeds in a tin can; 1st to protect seeds with a fungicide; & 1st to import from Italy & catalog broccoli for his customers.

Thursday, August 3, 2017

Johnson & Stokes Seed Catalog of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Johnson & Stokes Seed Catalog of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Walter P Stokes joined the Seed Company, owned by Herbert W Johnson, Republican Sheriff of Camden County, NJ, since 1876, in Merchantville, & it was renamed the Johnson & Stokes Seed Company in 1881. The enterprise was dissolved in 1906, & Walter Stokes resumed operating under his previous business name as Stokes' Standard Seeds & then as Stokes Seed Company. Walter P Stokes was born on June 4, 1856, in Pennsylvania, his father was Isaac & his mother was Mary. He married Anna N R Smedley, & they had 2 children. He then married Anna Taylor, & they had one son.   Walter P. Stokes, for many years engaged in the seed trade in Philadelphia, Pa., & a prominent member of the Society of Friends, died suddenly of heart disease on July 1, 1916; while on a fishing trip in Maine, & was buried in Upper Darby, PA.  Mr. Stokes resided in Moorestown, N.J. Walter P. Stokes was head of the tree commission of Moorestown, first president of the Moorestown Field Club, a member of the board of directors of the Friends hospital, Frankford, & of the Cheyney Institute for Colored Youth. He was a member of the Northfleld Country Club, Atlantic City, & the City Club, Philadelphia. He was a past president of the American Seed Trade Association & was widely known in the trade throughout the country. In 1916, the firm was taken over by Walter's son, Francis C. Stokes, a Rutgers horticultural alumnus, with a national reputation as a dynamic young seedsman who was responsible for developing some of the famous New Jersey tomatoes of the early 1900's. Reportedly, he was the 1st American seedsman to offer seeds in a tin can; 1st to protect seeds with a fungicide; & 1st to import from Italy & catalog broccoli for his customers.

Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Pioneer Plant Breeder Luther Burbank 1849-1936

Luther Burbank was born in Lancaster, Massachusetts, on March 7, 1849.  Over the span of his life, he became known as one of North America's foremost American plant breeders.  Joy Lanzendorfer tells us that Burbank’s career started with a tiny seedpod growing on a potato plant in his Massachusetts garden. Most people would disregard the inedible seedpod, but Burbank had been reading Charles Darwin. Intrigued by Darwin's idea that each plant contains countless possible variations, he planted the 23 seeds. Only two of the resulting plants produced potatoes, but one of them was amazing. It yielded tons of big potatoes with thin brown skin and white flesh. Today a slight variation of the original potato, due to a spontaneous mutation in a farmer’s field, is one of today's most popular.
In 1875, at the age of 26, Burbank sold the rights to the "best white potato," the Russet potato, which he used to improve the disease resistance of Irish potatoes. He sold the rights to the potato for $150  to James J. H. Gregory and used the proceeds to travel to Santa Rosa, from his native Massachusetts. In California, his birthday is celebrated as Arbor Day & trees are planted in his memory. The famed horticulturist made his home in Santa Rosa for more than 50 years, & it was here that he conducted plant-breeding experiments that brought him world fame. Burbank was a man of high goals & firm beliefs. He declared, "We must return to nature and nature's god."
One of Burbank’s goals was to increase the world’s food supply by manipulating the characteristics of plants. Burbank developed an improved spineless cactus which could provide forage for livestock in desert regions.  Joy Lanzendorfer supplies these details. It took Burbank 2 decades to remove the cactus’s spines, a process he called soul testing. “For five years or more the cactus blooming season was a period of torment to me both day and night,” he said. Burbank hoped the spineless cactus would transform deserts into places where cattle could graze. But it turned out that the spineless cactus was delicate. It didn’t like cold and needed regular watering — it just couldn’t survive in most deserts. 
He experimented with thousands of plant varieties & developed more than 800 new named varieties & strains over his 55 year career. He believed that, "The secret of improved plant breeding, apart from scientific knowledge, is love."  His work included fruits, flowers, grains, grasses, & vegetables. He introduced new varieties of tomatoes, corn, squash, peas, & asparagus.  He grew new varieties of prunes, plums, raspberries, blackberries, apples, peaches, & nectarines. He developed new types of tomatoes, corn, squash, peas, & asparagus. He also introduced many new flowers, especially lilies & his famous Shasta daisy. Burbank felt that, "Flowers always make people better, happier, and more helpful; they are sunshine, food and medicine for the soul."
Lanzendorfer also writes that Burbank was fond of daisies, so he set out to invent his ideal daisy. He wanted large, white blossoms that would bloom for a long period of time. First, he cross-pollinated the oxeye field daisy with the English field daisy. Then he took the best of those plants and crossed them with the Portuguese field daisy—a process that took 6 years. Still unsatisfied—apparently the flowers weren’t white enough—he pollinated these triple hybrids with the Japanese field daisy, which was known for its white blossoms. The result was a flower close to the one in his imagination. He introduced the Shasta Daisy, which took 17 years to finally complete in 1901.
Burbank believed that, "Every child should have mud pies, grasshoppers, water-bugs, tadpoles, frogs, mud-turtles, elderberries, wild strawberries, acorns, chestnuts, trees to climb, brooks to wade in, water-lilies, woodchucks, bats, bees, butterflies, various animals to pet, hay-fields, pine-cones, rocks to roll, sand, snakes, huckleberries and hornets and any child who has been deprived of these has been deprived of the best part of his education." Burbank also appreciated adults.  He was a friend of Thomas Edison & Henry Ford, & both men journeyed to California in 1911, to visit him at his Burbank experimental garden. Burbank’s legacy inspired Santa Rosa’s annual Rose Parade, an annual explosion of flowers in a complex of forms, celebrating Burbank’s work & memory. On Burbank’s death in 1926, he was buried under the Cedar of Lebanon in his front yard.

For more details, see:
Burbank, Luther, 1849-1926 Luther Burbank: his methods and discoveries and their practical application: Volumes I - XII (1914)
Bailey, Liberty H. (August 1901). "A Maker of New Fruits and Flowers: How Luther Burbank Breeds New Varieties of Plants on His California Farm". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. II: 1209–1214. 
Burbank, Luther. "The Training of the Human Plant". Century Magazine, May 1907.
Smith, Jane S. (2009). The Garden of Invention: Luther Burbank 
Burbank, Luther. The Canna and the Calla: and some interesting work with striking results. 
Burbank, Luther with Wilbur Hall, Harvest of the Years. This is Luther Burbank's autobiography published posthumously after his death in 1926.
Burbank, Luther. 1939. An Architect of Nature. Same details as ref. above, publisher: Watts & Co. (London) 'The Thinker's Library, No.76'
Burt, Olive W. Luther Burbank, Boy Wizard. Biography published by Bobbs-Merrill in 1948 aimed at intermediate level students.
Dreyer, Peter, A Gardener Touched With Genius The Life of Luther Burbank,  L. Burbank Home & Gardens; New & expanded edition (January 1993)
Kraft, K. Luther Burbank, the Wizard and the Man. New York : Meredith Press, 1967 
Pandora, Katherine. "Luther Burbank". American National Biography. Retrieved on 2006-11-16.(September 1903). "King of Horticulture". Overland Monthly. XLII: 226–233.< Tuomey, Honoria. "Luther Burbank, Scientist." Out West magazine, September 1905. pages 201-222. illustrated.