Saturday, September 23, 2017

1884 Who stole all of those fine, large, mellow apples out of the garden.

Tupelo Journal (MS) County News - Guntown, Baldwyn, Verona November 21 1884

GUNTOWN NEWS
Messrs. Agnew & Hinds will soon have their spacious shop and warerooms read for occupying.
Mr. J. M. Agnew is very anxious to know who stole all of those fine, large, mellow apples out of his garden. 
From Noah Webster (1758-1843) American Spelling Book.

A blog on the American Orchard tells us that as far as 19C American law was concerned, "taking apples from a roadside orchard was a trivial offense–at most an instance of trespass, for which the owner was only entitled to sue for the value of lost fruit, which in any given case would be so small as to not be worth the trouble. But as good roads & canals connected farmers to urban markets, & improvement-minded farmers invested more of their labor & resources into carefully cultivated, grafted fruit orchards with marketable winter apples, they began to perceive the passerby who pilfered a shirttail full of apples in the same light they did the pickpocket. Market-minded farmers grew increasingly frustrated that the law did not agree. As early as 1832, a court case in New York gave horticulturalists some hope that the legal system & the public might begin to take their grievance seriously. The case involved an apple-pilferer who took a farmer to court for assault. The pilferer had been caught in the act by the orchard owner who was holding a horsewhip when he demanded that the thief put down the fruit. When the brazen scoundrel refused, the orchard owner took the whip to him. The plaintiff’s lawyer confessed to the jury that he himself had on many occasions taken fruit from other men’s orchards, that no doubt the majority of the jury members had done so as well, & therefore the assault with horsewhip was entirely unwarranted. The jury disagreed & found for the farmer defendant. The story circulated among editors of agricultural journals, who read into the jury’s decision “the pleasing hope that we were on the eve of a revolution in regard to the plundering of fruit, & that a great improvement in public sentiment is taking place on this subject.”

Friday, September 22, 2017

1896 Alneer Brothers Illustrated Catalog from Rockford, Illinois

1896 Alneer Brothers Illustrated Catalog from Rockford, Illinois

Charles G Alneer and his brother Alfred, of the firm of Alneer Bros, dealers in all kinds of seeds and plants. The Alneer brothers were originally from Sweden, born in Wester Gothland Province, and came with the family to America in 1869. They settled Rockford, Ill. Their father was a tiller of the soil all his life. The mother, whose maiden name was Anna Lindstrom, died after only 5 years in the USA in 1874. When they came to Rockford in 1869, they began working for the J B Root seed company, which they would later acquire, and subsequently the brothers began business on their own account. They opened their seed compay in 1883, meeting with so much success and encouragement, that they built a new building in 1894. They gradually increased their business, until they were among the flourishing & most reliable seed merchants of Illinois. They developed a large trade all over the United States by carrying a full line of flower, vegetable, farm, & grass seed. The business became part of the Condon-Shumway Company in 1950.

Thursday, September 21, 2017

1911 Working Wonders With Worn Out, Abandoned Alabama Land

Huntsville Weekly Democrat  Huntsville, AL. July 19 1911
A Thrifty Farmer of Scottsboro - Miller Kelly
Miller Kelly Has Worked Wonders With
Worn Out Land That Had Been Abandoned
Scottsboro, July 13.—Miller Kelly, is one farmer that believes in diversifying his crop. He has now growing on his pretty farm, one mile west of town, cotton, corn, peanuts, sweet & Irish potatoes, alfalfa, sorghum & peas, all in a high state of cultivation free from grass & weeds. A few years ago this farm that now looks like a well-kept garden was a terrible thicket of briars & bushes—one that had been allowed to run down & considered worthless & worn out. Mr. Kelly also has fine hogs & a heard of fine cows. His home, barn & outhouses are all good, & you can see thrift & industry all about the place. He uses the latest improved tools for cultivating his crops. He always sells at a fancy price his King’s early cotton seed. In the last few years by grading his seed up every year he has brought them to as near perfection as can be. He & his 4 sons comprise the force. 

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Burpee Catalog 1890 Back Cover

W. Atlee Burpee (1858-1915) - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Doylestown, Pennsylvania; Lompoc California; Swedesboro, New Jersey The W. Atlee Burpee & Company was founded by W. Atlee Burpee in 1876 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.   Atlee was born in 1858, in New Brunswick, New Jersey.  At fourteen years of age, Atlee’s hobby was breeding chickens, geese and turkeys.  He corresponded with poultry experts worldwide and wrote scholarly articles in poultry journals.   With a partner, in 1876, the 18 year old Atlee started a mail-order chicken business in the family home with $1,000 loaned to him by his mother.  Poultry farmers from the Northeast knew of his business, and he soon opened a store in Philadelphia, selling not only poultry but also corn seed for poultry feed.  It wasn’t long before his customers started requesting cabbage, carrot, cauliflower and cucumber seeds.  In 1878, Burpee dropped his partner and founded W. Atlee Burpee & Company, mainly for garden seeds, but poultry wasn’t dropped from the Burpee catalog until the 1940s.   By 1888, the family home, Fordhook Farms, in Doylestown, seed packet - Burpee's seed sense Pennsylvania, was established as an experimental farm to test and evaluate new varieties of vegetables and flowers, and to produce seeds.  Before World War I, Atlee spent many summers traveling through Europe and the United States, visiting farms and searching for the best flowers and vegetables.  Atlee shipped many of the vegetables and flowers he found to Fordhook Farms for testing.  Those plants that survived were bred with healthier types to produce hybrids better suited to the United States.  Fordhook Farms was the first laboratory to research and test seeds in this way.  Fordhook Farms specialized in testing onions, beets, carrots, peas and cabbage.  In 1909, Burpee established Floradale Farms in Lompoc, California, to test sweet peas, and Sunnybrook Farms near Swedesboro, New Jersey tested tomatoes, eggplants, peppers and squashes.  In his travels, Atlee met Asa Palmer, a Pennsylvania farmer who raised beans, and who thought he had one plant that was resistant to cutworms.  Burpee turned this bean plant into what is now known as the Fordhook lima bean, one of the company’s most famous items.  Another successful plant was the Golden Bantam sweet corn that the farmer William Chambers of Greenfield, Massachusetts had grown before his death.  A friend of Chambers found some of the sweet corn seeds and sold Burpee seeds of the corn, and in 1902, Golden Bantam was featured in a Burpee catalog.  Before 1900 most people thought that yellow corn was fit only for animals, so in order to change their customers minds, many farmers slipped Golden Bantam corn in with the white corn they were selling.  Within a few years, people in the United States were converted to yellow corn.  Iceberg lettuce was introduced in 1894 and named for its crispness.  A key in Burpee’s business was the 1863 free delivery system, that required post offices to deliver mail to residents’ homes, and in 1896, free delivery was extended to rural areas.  This allowed his catalogs to be delivered directly to people’s homes.  Thousands of letters were received annually from Burpee’s customers thanking him for his seeds.  Burpee knew that the key to his business was advertising and the catalog was his advertising medium.  In his first year of business, his catalog was 48 pages, but by 1915 his catalogs were 200 pages and he distributed a million catalogs. Burpee personally wrote most of the copy of his catalogs.  Burpee set up an advertising department and offered cash prizes for the best advertisements.  This competition is what originated the slogan “Burpee Seeds Grow” in 1890.  The 1891 catalog was the first to feature engravings made from photographs, and by 1901 this process was done by machines.  Burpee’s move to photography changed the whole industry and the hand-drawn illustration in catalogs disappeared.  In another break with tradition, Burpee eliminated cultural information and put in testimonial letters and plant descriptions.   At Atlee’s death in 1915, the company had 300 employees, and it was the largest seed company in the world.  At that time the Burpee company distributed over 1 million catalogs a year and received 10,000 orders a day. 

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

1903 Raging Fire, Live Ammunition, The Gardener's Cottage, Dead Child

The Hepburn - English Style Gardener's Cottage - American House Plan

THE PEATS GIRL IS DEAD
The Girl’s Aunt & Mother Received Severe Burns — Fireman
Fighting Flames Felt Bullets Whistling Past Their Heads.
Waterbury Evening Democrat. Waterbury, CT January 23 1903. 
-------
Greenwich, June 23.--After lingering in agony several hours as a result of burns received during the fire which destroyed her home, Genevieve Peats, the young daughter of Alfred Peats, the millionaire wall-paper manufacturer, died this morning, at the cottage of the gardener employed on the Peats estate. The girl was 8 years old, & was an only child. Her mother & the latter's sister, Miss Pugh, who were burned about the arms in their efforts to save the child, will recover, from their injuries, though Mrs. Peats is prostrated by grief. It was learned today that Miss Pugh was in Genevieve Peats' room when the fire started. She thinks a lamp in the room exploded. Both Mrs. Peats & Miss Pugh were removed early today to the gardener’s cottage, where the child afterward died. Mr Peats...was at the gardener's cottage for a time, & refused to leave there until compelled to do so by his nurses. The firemen say their effort to subdue the flames were greatly hampered by delay in sending in an alarm due to...the fact that the two towers of the residence contained a large quantity of ammunition. Each of the towers rooms were fitted up as dens & a servant warned the firemen that the dens contained about a thousand rounds of cartridges. Proof of the assertion came when the towers caught fire & a continuous series of explosions ensued. The firemen say they frequently heard bullets whizzing about their heads & that any near-approach to the towers was dangerous.

Monday, September 18, 2017

D M Ferry & Co Seed Catalog from Detroit, Michigan

Dexter Mason Ferry was born in Lowville, New York, on August 8, 1833, but after his father's passing when Dexter was 3 years old, he & his mother moved to Penfield, New York.  Dexter went attended school there & at age of 16 began working on a farm. In 1851, when Ferry reached 18, he began working for Ezra M. Parsons of Rochester, New York.  In a short time, in 1852, Parsons helped Dexter get a job as an errand boy for S .D. Elwood & Company, a stationery firm in Detroit, Michigan. There he was soon promoted salesman, & later bookkeeper. With a formal education, experience as a laborer, & various aspects of business under his belt, Mr. Ferry, along with 2 partners, Milo T. Gardner & Eber F. Church, founded Gardner, Ferry & Church on April 1, 1856, when Dexter was not quite 23. In 1865, Ferry bought out Gardner & the company name was shortened to Ferry, Church & Company. Church retired 2 years later, & Dexter dropped his ex-partner's name. Ferry focused on quality & gained a reputation for selling superior seeds. He chose to only sell fresh seed with tested high germination rates. In 1879, Mr. Ferry absorbed the Detroit Seed Company & incorporated as D. M. Ferry & Co. The company grew, released new varieties of vegetables, & thrived. On New Years Day in 1886, fire demolished the company's warehouse at with a loss of nearly $1,000,000. Ferry quickly decided to purchase seed stock & 2 smaller seed companies, & were able to fill customer's orders. They constructed a new warehouse, & by 1890 were selling over $1,500,000 annually.  By the early 1900s, the company's sales grew to over $2,000,000 yearly through mail-order catalog sales as well as placing seed racks to 160,000 retail outlets. D. M. Ferry died on November 10, 1907. The company merged with the California based seed company, C. C. Morse Company in 1930, to become the Ferry-Morse Seed Company. They relocated to Kentucky in 1959.

Sunday, September 17, 2017

1859 Drs Cock & McCarter selling Medicines, Garden Seeds plus Whiskey for "Medical Purposes"

Abbeville Advertiser AL March 17 1859
Drs. Cock & McCarter

IF YOU COME TO COLUMBIA,
STOP AT THE SIGN OF THE BLUE MORTAR!
WHERE MESSRS. COCK & McCARTER 
will always be ready to supply you with all you may want in the way of
DRUGS, PATENT MEDICINES, OILS, PAINTS, & DYE STUFFS. Also, GARDEN SEEDS, Fresh and of the Best kinds.
SURGICAL & DENTAL INSTRUMENTS, TRUSSES & PHYSICIANS FURNITURE; such as
Saddlebags, Viols, Bottles, Jars, &c. 

DO YOU USE TOBACCO?
They always have on hand a fine assortment of Cigars, Snuff & Tobacco, of the best brands.
Brandy, Gin, Wine and Whisky, of the purest and best kind, for medical purposes.

LADIES CALL ON THEM,
And they will supply you with FLAVORING EXTRACTS, for your table Candies and Fruits for your children; and Soaps, Perfumery and Toilet Articles of every description, for yourselves.
DR. W. Z. COCK, B. L. M CARTER

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Wm Henry Maule Philadelphia Catalog of Vegetables including The Lazy Wife's Pole Bean

Henry Maule was born on April 14, 1828 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. & died in 1902. He took over the Philadelphia lumber company established by his father Caleb Maul (1790-1844). Henry's son William Henry Maule (1858-1913), took control of his grandfather's & father’s lumber & seed company in 1882, after partnering with his father for several years. When the father/son seed business originally began in 1877, it originally catered to market gardeners & farmers who supplied local consumers with their fresh vegetables. The world of seed publishing was fascinating to the young businessman & much of his energy went into expanding the seed & bulb end of the business, handing off the lumber-related duties to his brother Charles Price Maule (1856-1920). In 1885, W H Maule came up with the idea of publishing a colorful, beautifully illustrated catalog to showcase the vast variety & quality of his products. In 1889, Maule took it to the next level. Instead of appealing to the distribution of his product to dealers, he would target the common independent farmer, the gardening hobbyist, & anyone who had a mailbox could now become a potential lifelong customer. To entice the general public, Maule would include a packet of free samples with every catalog & offer cash prizes for the largest orders. William Henry Maule Co.'s catalogs often featured farm & field scenes. This idea skyrocketed the seed company into nationwide fame. Maule’s Seeds (later called the William Henry Maule Company) was the 1st in Philadelphia to use this business model & helped make the city into the seed capital of America, causing the spawn of at least a dozen similar outfits. (The Landreth Seed Company was the 1st large seed distributor, having set up shop at 12th & Market in 1784; Burpee Seeds, Maule’s contemporary & competitor, was founded in 1876.) By the time his father died in 1902, William Henry Maule had 560,000 regular customers, distributed over 5 million seed catalogs, given away more than 3 million seed packets, & awarded $30,000 in cash prizes. Over that time, the company had moved to larger & larger quarters. From a rented space on the Delaware riverfront in the 1880s, to a cast iron beauty at 1711 Filbert in the early 1890s, to a 7-story modern office building at 18th & Market at the turn of the 20th Century. The 18th & Market warehouse was named “Maule Building.” Maule eventually set his sights on building a much larger headquarters that would end the need to move every decade. In 1909, Maule acquired a string of properties on the 2100 block of Arch Street & spent the next few years working on what he hoped would be the William Henry Maule Company’s final home. This new $100,000 headquarters would not only house the company’s offices but also warehouse the immense variety of seeds, bulbs, & plants the Maule Company distributed across the country. It would have a footprint measuring 60′ x 111’8″ & rise 8 stories. Construction began in 1912 & was completed by the end of 1913. The building was quite prominent on the skyline at the time, as few other buildings in the immediate area matched its height. On September 6th, 1913, around the same time the new building was about to open, the 55-year-old William Henry Maule died from what was then known as a “stroke of apoplexy,” a term used at the time to describe any number of afflictions that appeared to cause sudden death. Once opened, the new Maule Building would continue William Henry Maule’s business model. New catalogs were published every year for the next 3 decades. Unfortunately, William Henry Maule’s dream of the entire operation running out of this one building didn’t last. By the end of the 1920s, the Maule Company moved out of the Maule Building & leased office & warehouse space at the Nicetown home of the W. A. Burpee Company, a competitor whose progenitor, W. Atlee Burpee, had partnered with William Henry Maule’s father, when the Maule Lumber Company 1st expanded to include seeds. Burpee had already surpassed the Maule Company’s success in 1915. In 1946, the Maule Company sold 2100 Arch Street for $145,000 & used the money to purchase a new office/warehouse in Clinton, Iowa, creating a second distribution point for all deliveries west of Ohio. Despite this major expansion, the company didn’t last. In 1947, the Maule Company merged with the W.A. Burpee Company, with whom they had already been collaborating for about a decade.

Friday, September 15, 2017

1859 A Rice Machine & Garden Seeds

Ads from the Abbeville Advertiser, AL March 17 1859

Rice Machine
The subscriber would respectfully inform the citizens of Henry and surrounding counties, that he has a Machine on the 8 Mile Creek, near the road leading from Abbeville to Franklin, now in successful operation for cleaning rice, and invites the rice making community to give him a call he pledges himself to give satisfaction. DAVID CANNON.
================
Garden Seeds
D. M. BRUNER & SON,
ABBEVILLE, ALA.
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN
DRUGS, MEDICINES, CHEMICALS
Fine Toilet Soaps, Fine Hair and Tooth Brushes, Trusses and Shoulder Braces, Fancy and Toilet Articles, Pure Wines and Liquors for Medicinal Uses, Perfumery, Glass, Putty, Paints, Oils, Varnishes, Dye Stuffs, Garden Seeds, Tobacco, Cigars, Pipes, etc., etc., etc.
Planters and Physicians from the country will find our stock of Medicines complete. Physicians Prescriptions carefully compounded, and all orders carefully answered. Medicines warranted genuine and of the best quality.

Thursday, September 14, 2017

Johnson & Stokes 1906 Seed Catalog of Philadelphia, PA

Johnson & Stokes 1906 Seed Catalog of Philadelphia, PA 

Walter P Stokes joined the Seed Company, owned by Herbert W Johnson, Republican Sheriff of Camden County, NJ, since 1876, in Merchantville, & it was renamed the Johnson & Stokes Seed Company in 1881. The enterprise was dissolved in 1906, & Walter Stokes resumed operating under his previous business name as Stokes' Standard Seeds & then as Stokes Seed Company. Walter P Stokes was born on June 4, 1856, in Pennsylvania, his father was Isaac & his mother was Mary. He married Anna N R Smedley, & they had 2 children. He then married Anna Taylor, & they had one son. Walter P. Stokes, for many years engaged in the seed trade in Philadelphia, Pa., & a prominent member of the Society of Friends, died suddenly of heart disease on July 1, 1916; while on a fishing trip in Maine, & was buried in Upper Darby, PA. Mr. Stokes resided in Moorestown, N.J. Walter P. Stokes was head of the tree commission of Moorestown, first president of the Moorestown Field Club, a member of the board of directors of the Friends hospital, Frankford, & of the Cheyney Institute for Colored Youth. He was a member of the Northfleld Country Club, Atlantic City, & the City Club, Philadelphia. He was a past president of the American Seed Trade Association & was widely known in the trade throughout the country. In 1916, the firm was taken over by Walter's son, Francis C. Stokes, a Rutgers horticultural alumnus, with a national reputation as a dynamic young seedsman who was responsible for developing some of the famous New Jersey tomatoes of the early 1900's. Reportedly, he was the 1st American seedsman to offer seeds in a tin can; 1st to protect seeds with a fungicide; & 1st to import from Italy & catalog broccoli for his customers.

Tuesday, September 12, 2017

1899 Peter Henderson & Co Catalog from New York City

1899 Peter Henderson & Co Catalog from New York City 
Peter Henderson, (1822-1890)–New York, NY Henderson was born in Scotland in 1822. He came to America in 1843, and worked under Grant Thorburn and Robert Buist. Henderson began as a market gardener in Jersey City, New Jersey, in 1847. During the Civil War he moved his floral business to South Bergen. By 1890 he had five acres covered by glass. Henderson’s contemporaries called him “the father of horticulture and ornamental gardening” in the United States. In 1865, he published Gardening for Profit, the first book written on market gardening in the United States. It sold 100,000 copies. He followed with Practical Floriculture in 1868. In 1871, he established a seed company called Peter Henderson & Company. The company developed vegetables and flowers suited to American conditions. He began a new era of seed trade merchandising by using a five-color lithograph in his catalog. His catalog Everything for the Garden featured a white-haired gentleman. His writing was aimed at teaching good horticultural practices. He recommended gardening as the best therapy for invalids. He dictated all of his writing for his catalog to a secretary, while lying down after work hours. He personally answered every letter he received. In the course of 45 years of business, he sent out 175,000 letters, two-thirds of them were written by his own hand. An account of his life was published by his son Alfred Henderson. He died in Jersey City, New Jersey, on January 17, 1890.

Friday, September 8, 2017

Philadelphian William Henry Maule’s 1888 Seed Catalog

Philadelphian William Henry Maule’s 1888 Seed Catalog

Henry Maule was born on April 14, 1828 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. & died in 1902. He took over the Philadelphia lumber company established by his father Caleb Maul (1790-1844). Henry's son William Henry Maule (1858-1913), took control of his grandfather's & father’s lumber & seed company in 1882, after partnering with his father for several years. When the father/son seed business originally began in 1877, it originally catered to market gardeners & farmers who supplied local consumers with their fresh vegetables. The world of seed publishing was fascinating to the young businessman & much of his energy went into expanding the seed & bulb end of the business, handing off the lumber-related duties to his brother Charles Price Maule (1856-1920). In 1885, W H Maule came up with the idea of publishing a colorful, beautifully illustrated catalog to showcase the vast variety & quality of his products. In 1889, Maule took it to the next level. Instead of appealing to the distribution of his product to dealers, he would target the common independent farmer, the gardening hobbyist, & anyone who had a mailbox could now become a potential lifelong customer. To entice the general public, Maule would include a packet of free samples with every catalog & offer cash prizes for the largest orders. William Henry Maule Co.'s catalogs often featured farm & field scenes. This idea skyrocketed the seed company into nationwide fame. Maule’s Seeds (later called the William Henry Maule Company) was the 1st in Philadelphia to use this business model & helped make the city into the seed capital of America, causing the spawn of at least a dozen similar outfits. (The Landreth Seed Company was the 1st large seed distributor, having set up shop at 12th & Market in 1784; Burpee Seeds, Maule’s contemporary & competitor, was founded in 1876.) By the time his father died in 1902, William Henry Maule had 560,000 regular customers, distributed over 5 million seed catalogs, given away more than 3 million seed packets, & awarded $30,000 in cash prizes. Over that time, the company had moved to larger & larger quarters. From a rented space on the Delaware riverfront in the 1880s, to a cast iron beauty at 1711 Filbert in the early 1890s, to a 7-story modern office building at 18th & Market at the turn of the 20th Century. The 18th & Market warehouse was named “Maule Building.” Maule eventually set his sights on building a much larger headquarters that would end the need to move every decade. In 1909, Maule acquired a string of properties on the 2100 block of Arch Street & spent the next few years working on what he hoped would be the William Henry Maule Company’s final home. This new $100,000 headquarters would not only house the company’s offices but also warehouse the immense variety of seeds, bulbs, & plants the Maule Company distributed across the country. It would have a footprint measuring 60′ x 111’8″ & rise 8 stories. Construction began in 1912 & was completed by the end of 1913. The building was quite prominent on the skyline at the time, as few other buildings in the immediate area matched its height. On September 6th, 1913, around the same time the new building was about to open, the 55-year-old William Henry Maule died from what was then known as a “stroke of apoplexy,” a term used at the time to describe any number of afflictions that appeared to cause sudden death. Once opened, the new Maule Building would continue William Henry Maule’s business model. New catalogs were published every year for the next 3 decades. Unfortunately, William Henry Maule’s dream of the entire operation running out of this one building didn’t last. By the end of the 1920s, the Maule Company moved out of the Maule Building & leased office & warehouse space at the Nicetown home of the W. A. Burpee Company, a competitor whose progenitor, W. Atlee Burpee, had partnered with William Henry Maule’s father, when the Maule Lumber Company 1st expanded to include seeds. Burpee had already surpassed the Maule Company’s success in 1915. In 1946, the Maule Company sold 2100 Arch Street for $145,000 & used the money to purchase a new office/warehouse in Clinton, Iowa, creating a second distribution point for all deliveries west of Ohio. Despite this major expansion, the company didn’t last. In 1947, the Maule Company merged with the W.A. Burpee Company, with whom they had already been collaborating for about a decade.

Wednesday, September 6, 2017

1896 Catalog of Lovett Co, Little Silver, N.J. + Unexpected Spread of the Chestnut Blight

1896 Catalog of The Lovett Co., Little Silver, N.J.
Lovett Nursery & the Introduction of Chestnut Blight

Dr. Sandra L. Anagnostakis writes that, "American chestnut trees (Castanea dentata) were once so common in the Eastern United States that everyone who could get to the woods in the fall could count on nuts for roasting & for stuffing their Thanksgiving turkey. The wood was highly resistant to rot, & used extensively for poles, fencing, & building materials. An "imported" fungus disease was discovered in New York City in 1904, & within 50 years it had changed the appearance of our Eastern forests. The fungus, Cryphonectria (formerly Endothia) parasitica, enters wounds, grows in & under the bark, & eventually kills the cambium all the way around the twig, branch, or trunk. Everything distal to this "canker" then dies, sprouts are formed, & the process starts all over again. The fungus does not enter the "root collar" at the base of the tree, so sprout clumps survive today that are the remnants of the original trees. From the earliest discovery of the disease attempts were made to control it, but nothing worked. A major forest tree was reduced to a multiple-stemmed shrub. In 1912 the Plant Quarantine Act was passed to reduce the chances of such a catastrophe happening again. 

 "Where did the chestnut blight fungus come from, & when did it come to the United States? After the blight fungus was discovered here, plant explorer Frank Meyer found that it was present in both China & Japan, & that Asian trees were often very resistant to the disease & showed few symptoms when infected. This was taken as proof that Asian trees imported into the United States had brought the blight with them. "G. H. Powell wrote in 1900 that Japanese chestnut trees (Castanea crenata) were first imported in 1876 by nurseryman S. B. Parsons of Flushing, New York (in the New York City borough of Queens, at the western end of Long Island). These were widely distributed, & two of them were planted & still survive in southern Connecticut. In 1882, William Parry in New Jersey imported 1,000 grafted Japanese chestnut trees. In the West, Luther Burbank planted a box of seeds sent by his collector from Japan in 1886. He subsequently had over 10,000 bearing trees growing in his Santa Rosa, California, nursery. Three of Burbank's selections were sold to Judge Coe in Connecticut, & then to J. H. Hale who propagated & sold them from his South Glastonbury, Connecticut, nursery. 

"Powell also reported that by 1899 there were over 300 acres of chestnut trees near Philadelphia grafted with European & Japanese varieties, & that the Lovett Co. in Little Silver, New Jersey, (near the coast, about 15 miles south of Long Island) had also imported Japanese chestnut trees & were selling them by mail-order."

Saturday, September 2, 2017

Off to the Fair - A State Fair 1896

Detail, 1896 H W Buckbee Seed & Plant Guide, Rockford, Illinois, From the collection of historic American Seed & Plant Catalogs from Smithsonian Institution Libraries

Friday, August 11, 2017

Seed Catalog from Cole's Seed Store, Pella, Iowa

Seed Catalog from Cole's Seed Store, Pella, Iowa

Aart Kool (1814-1892) married Heiltje-Hendrika "Henrietta" de Booy (1824-1901) in Pella, Iowa in 1848. Kool arrived in Pella, Iowa in 1847, with a group of Dutch emmigrants who moved to North America because of discontent over religious and economic matters. Aart KOOL, who farmed near Pella, anglicized the family name to Cole. The couple had a son Charles Nicholas Cole (1848-1947) who gained a reputation as a seedsman in Chicago working for the Vaughn Seed Company & then to New York & to Memphis to work for 2 more seed companies. In 1870, he returned to Pella to establish Cole's Seeds with his wife Etta Kruger Cole (1856-1953). He was joined by his brothers & the business was called Cole Bros Seed Company for several years.

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

1899 Livingston's Catalog from Columbus, Ohio

1899 Livingston's Catalog from Columbus, Ohio
Alexander W. Livingston was born on October 14, 1822, near Reynoldsburg, Ohio. He grew up on his family's farm & received limited schooling. He could read & write & do simple math problems. While still a child, Livingston showed an interest in seeds & plants, & many Reynoldsburg residents viewed him as an authority on these subjects. Upon reaching adulthood, Livingston married Matilda Dickey Graham. The couple had 10 children. In 1852, Livingston purchased 70 acres of land near Reynoldsburg. Here he developed A.W. Livingston Buckeye Seed Gardens, a seed business. His business quickly prospered. At this time, Livingston began to try to improve the tomato. He succeeded in doing so in 1870. Livingston spent two decades breeding his "Paragon" tomato. Tomatoes existed before Livingston, but they were small fruits with a sour taste. Livingston's Paragon was much larger & had a sweeter taste. Over the next 28 years, Livingston developed more than 30 other varieties of tomatoes. His work helped to make tomatoes more popular with American cooks. A scientist until the end of his life, Livingston died in 1898.
Timeline:
1822 - Founder Alexander W Livingston b in Reynoldsburg, OH 
1842 - Begins working for a local seed grower. 
1844 - Marries and leases land to begin farming.
1852 - Purchases his own land for a farm & seed business. 
1856 - Purchases 400 boxes of the Buckeye Garden Seed Company from Robert Robertson who was moving to Iowa.  During the late 1850s and early 1860s, business does well; and Livingston is able to expand his farming and seed operations. 
1864-65 - Builds a family home and consolidates seed and farming operations in one location. 
1875-76 - The Buckeye Garden Seed Company went bankrupt in the economic crash that affected many businesses in the nation. The business is dissolved and new entity formed by son Robert and named, "A. W. Livingston's Sons." Marketing was expanded using seed catalogs and advertising in newspapers and magazines. 
1880 - The company moves from Reynoldsburg to Columbus, Ohio. Alexander moves to Des Moines, Iowa after purchasing the farm of his friend Robert Robertson. Alexander's plan was to relocate the entire company to Iowa, but the business was prospering in Columbus under his son's management. 
1890 - After Alexander's wife passes away, he turned over the Iowa seed business to his son, Josiah. He returned to Ohio and began to work on his book, "Livingston and the Tomato." It was part autobiographical, part instructional, and part agricultural history. It combined information about Livingston's methods, the history of the tomato as a food crop, and even contained a large selection of compiled recipes. 
1898 - The company is incorporated as the Livingston Seed Company. Founder, A. W. Livingston passes away. 
1919 - The Livingstons were big players in the seed trade industry interacting with many major seed houses. They had their own grow outs as well as 'traded' stock. On April 1st, 1919, a fire broke out at one of their warehouses destroying everything. The McCullough's Sons Seed Company from Cincinnati, took the train up to Columbus the next day, gathered up what they could, and filled orders for the Livingstons. Even with their help, Livingstons still was forced to send out a form letter returning orders along with money.  
1930s - By the late 1930s, the seed industry had begun to change. The company survived by moving into field seeds, and dropped tomatoes from their line. 1937 - The United States Department of Agriculture's "Yearbook of Agriculture" for the year 1937 published the following short history: "The work of A. W. Livingston, of Columbus, Ohio, and his associates and successors in the Livingston Seed Co. has resulted in the introduction of more new varieties than that of any other private group. Most of the varieties introduced by the Livingstons were of their own finding or origination, but some were obtained from other growers. Paragon, from a chance seedling, was their first introduction (1870). The famous old variety Acme was developed by A. W. Livingston from a single superior plant found in a field of mixed stock and introduced in 1875. Like the Trophy, this variety was the source or served as one parent of many subsequently introduced varieties. In 1880 Perfection, a chance variant in Acme, was introduced. Livingston next brought out Golden Queen in 1882, Favorite in 1883, Beauty in 1886, Potato Leaf in 1887, Stone in 1889, and Royal Red in 1892. This last was developed from seven similar plants found in a field of Dwarf Champion by M. M. Miesse. The others just named were chance seedlings occurring in varieties the names of which are not known. These were followed by Aristocrat and Buckeye State in 1893, Honor Bright in 1897, and Magnus in 1900, as chance seedlings in varieties not recorded. In 1903 Dwarf Stone was introduced; it was a chance seedling found in Stone. Globe is from a cross between Stone and Ponderosa made about 1899 by Robert Livingston and was introduced in 1905. Hummer, another introduction, was selected out of Paragon. Of this impressive list introduced by the Livingstons, Stone and Globe are among the most important varieties grown today. Acme, Beauty, Buckeye State, Dwarf Stone, Golden Queen, and Perfection are still listed by some seed producers although they are not extensively grown." "With all due credit to the important contributions of other growers, seedsmen, and investigators, it is not out of place to call attention again to the great contribution of the Livingston Seed Co. to tomato improvement. Of about 40 varieties that had attained a distinct status prior to 1910, a third were productions or introductions by the Livingston company. If we add those varieties derived directly from Livingston productions and introductions, it appears that half of the major varieties were due to the abilities of the Livingstons to evaluate and perpetuate superior material in the tomato." 
1947 - The last wholesale catalog was produced. 

Tuesday, August 8, 2017

Bibliography of American Seed and Nursery Industry & their Trade Catalogs



"Alfred F. Conard;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n25, Dec. 22, 1906, p773. Obituary notice.

American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990.
Whole issue devoted to the "Life and Times in the [nursery] Industry."

Appleton"s Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887. James Vick is listed.

The Art of Gardening: Maryland Landscapes and the American Garden Aesthetic, 1730-1930: May-October, 1985, The Historical Society of Talbot County. Easton, MD: Historical Society of Talbot County, 1985. An exhibition on the role of gardening in the history of Maryland, included nursery and seed catalogs and advertising memorabilia.

Bailey, L. H. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture; A discussion, for the Amateur, and .... New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937. Biographies of horticulturists, pomologists, seedsmen, and nurserymen under the heading of 'Horticulturists.'

Baxter, Samuel Newman.  "The Nursery Catalog of a Century Back;" The Florists Exchange and Horticultural Trade World, vLX n18, Oct. 31, 1925, p1431. Catalog for Bartram's Botanic Garden, proprietor, Robert Carr, dated 1828.

Beans, Bruce E. "Seeds of Greatness: How the Burpee Empire Grew;" Inquirer (The Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine), Mar. 1, 1987, pp17-24. History of the Burpee company.

Benson, Albert Emerson. History of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. [Norwood, MA]: Printed for the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 1929. History of Society from 1830-1929. Lists officers of Society.

The Berckmans Collection at the Cherokee Garden Library, Atlanta, Georgia. This collection contains manuscripts, photographs, business records and personal memorabilia of Prosper Jules Alphonse Berckmans, Sr.

"Bernard McMahon;" The Oxford Companion to Gardens. Oxford; New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1986. Biography.

Birkby, Bob and Janice Nahra Friedel.  "Henry, Himself;" The Palimpsest, v64 n5, Sep./Oct. 1983, pp150-169. Biography of Henry Arms Field of Shenandoah, Iowa.

Block, Lori.  "A Century (or More!) And Counting;" American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990, pp78-102. A compendium of all the nursery businesses that have celebrated 100 years of continuous operation.

Boyd, James. A History of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1827-1927. Philadelphia: Printed for the Society, 1929. History of the Society broken up into seven different periods. Has biographies and portraits of officers that include many nurserymen and seedsmen and descriptions of gardens including nurseries.

Breckon, Gary.  "Lila's Nursery;" California Horticulture Society Journal, vXXVIII n3, Jul. 1967, pp193-196. History of a succulent nursery owned by Mrs. Lila Lillie and her mother, Mrs. Mary Belle Williams.

Brown, Thomas A., A List of California Nurseries and Their Catalogues 1850-1900. Petaluma, Calif. : T.A. Brown, 1993.

Bryan, Charles F., Jr. Seed for Thought. St. Louis, MO: St. Louis Mercantile Library, 1988. The catalog of an exhibition of early seed catalogues, horticultural manuals and illustrated books related to 19th and 20th century American gardening in the collection of the St. Louis Mercantile Library, in cooperation with the Missouri Botanical Garden Library, July 30-September 21, 1988.

Burbank, Luther. Luther Burbank, His Methods and Discoveries and Their Practical Application; Prepared....... New York; London: Luther Burbank Press, 1914-15. Twelve volumes taken from Burbank's original field notes made during forty years of research.

"Burnet Landreth;" The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Volume 24. Clifton, NJ: J. T. White, 1893-. Biography.

Burr, Charles J.  "The Berkeley Horticultural Nursery;" California Horticultural Journal, v34 n1, Jan. 1973, pp10-11. George Budgen, founder of nursery in 1922.

Burr, Charles J.  "The California Nursery: A History;" California Horticultural Journal, v31 n4, Oct. 1970, pp138-143. A history of one of the oldest nurseries in the West written six months after its demise in the spring of 1970.

Burr, Charles J. "Nurseries and Nurserymen --The Edenvale Nursery;" California Horticultural Journal, v33 n1, Jan. 1971, pp37, 39. History of Edenvale Nursery founded by C. E. Wilson and later owned by Frank Serpa.

Butterfield, Harry M.  "Builder's of California Horticulture, Part 1;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vXXII n1, Jan. 1961, pp2-7, 28. Information on William C. Walker, James Saul, United States Nursery, Juan Centre (John Center), Edward L. Reimers, Stephen Nolan, and the Shell Mound Nursery.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Builder's of California Horticulture, Part 2;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXII n3, Jul. 1961, pp102-107. Information on James Hutchison, W. F. Kelsey, Charles David Weber, Joseph Aram, Louis Prevost, Bernard S. Fox, Johann Felz, William C. Walker, William Wolfskill, Kate Sessions, Theodosia B. Shepherd, Carl Purdy, Edward O. Orpet, Luther Burbank, and C. C. Morse.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Carl Salbach--Plant Breeder and Nurseryman;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXI n4, Oct. 1950, pp172-176. Biography of Carl Salbach.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Early Horticulture in Northern and Central California;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXIX n1, Jan. 1968, pp30-32. Information on Frank Kunz, Peter Kunz, the Felix Gillet Nursery, Luther Burbank, and Carl Purdy.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Early Nurseries in the Eastern United States;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVII n2, Apr. 1966, pp42-56. Brief histories of 23 East Coast nurseries.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Horticultural Activity in the Santa Barbara Area;" California Horticultural Journal, vXXIX n2, Apr. 1968, pp49-50, 55. Biographies of Joseph Sexton (1842-1917), Kinton Stevens of The Palm and Citrus Nursery, Emanuele O. Fenzi, and Edward Owen Orpet.

Butterfield, Harry M. "The History of Ornamental Horticulture in California;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVI n2, Apr. 1965, pp 47-50. History starting with William C. Walker and his Golden Gate Nursery established in 1849.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Horticulture in the San Diego Area;" California Horticultural Journal, vXXX n2, Apr. 1969, pp62-63.
Short biographies of Kate Olivia Sessions (1857-1940) and Alfred D. Robinson, the founder of Rosecroft Begonia Gardens.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Pioneer Horticulturists in the Los Angeles Area;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXIX n3, Jul. 1968, pp 93-95. Information on Ozro B. Childs, Matthew Keller, Louis J. Stengel, John Grelck, E. D. Sturtevant, Eugene Germain, Aggeler and Musser Seed Company founded by Henry L. Musser in 1896, and Theodore Payne.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Some Pioneer Nurseries in California and their Plants, Part 1;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVII n3, Jul. 1966, pp 70-77. Information on James L. Lafayette Warren, William Neely Thompson, Julius K. Rose, C. V. Gillespie, J. Bryant Hill, E. L. Beard, William Connell Walker, John Center (Juan Centre), James and William O'Donnell, Henry Sonntag, J. O'Hare, Frederick A. Miller, Edward L. Reimer, S. W. Moore, F. Ludemann, Robert J. Trumbull, E. Meyer, Charles Abraham, and H. H. Berger.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Some Pioneer Nurseries in California and their Plants, Part 2;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVII n4, Oct. 1966, pp 102-108. Information on James Hutchison, William F. Kelsey, A. D. Pryal, Stephen Nolan and his Belle View Nursery, Lewelling Brothers, Domoto Brothers, H. Yoshiike of the Japanese Nursery, and Edward C. Gill.

Butterfield, Harry M. "Some Pioneer Nurseries in California and their Plants, Part 3;" California Horticultural Society Journal, vXXVIII n1, Jan. 1967, pp 132-139. Short biographies of California nurserymen including William Mohr, Jemima Branin, John Rock, James Shinn, Sydney Bancroft Mitchell, Carl Salbach, Edward Oliver Essig, and Professor E. O. James.

Christiansen, Bess Gedney. "A Brief History of Seed Catalogs;" The Historical Gardener, v3 n3, Fall 1994, pp 4-5. Landreth, Thorburn, Downing, Vick's, and Ferry.

farmer seed packetChristopher, Thomas. "Flora Unbound;" House & Garden, v167 n9, September 1998, pp 146-148. The use of floral plates as decorative prints.

Christopher, Thomas. "Heirloom Seed Catalogs: Back Issues Yield Insights into the Origins of American Gardening;" Horticulture, v63 n12, December 1985, pp 24-27. A history of seed and nursery catalogs in America.

"Comstock, Ferre & Co., 1820-1980: Celebrating 160 Years in the Seed Business." History of the company, probably written by Mrs. Corinne W. Willard, wife of the president of the company in 1980.

Culbertson, Molly. "The Paper Garden;" Country Home, v12 issue 1, February 1990, pp81-85, 113 A discussion of lithography, the art of the seed catalogs, as well as a history of American seed companies.

"David Burpee;" The National Cyclopedia of American Biography. Clifton, NJ: J. T. White, 1893- Biography.

Dreyer, Peter. A Gardener Touched with Genius: The Life of Luther Burbank. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985. Biography of Luther Burbank.

"Early American Nurserymen and Seedsmen;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967, (February 1968) pp 75-76. One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

"Early American Seed Trade;" Grower Talks, v40 n3, July 1976, pp 1-15. This special bicentennial issue of Grower Talks gives a history of American horticulture. Grower Talks is published by Ball Publishing, part of George J. Ball Company, a flower seed breeding and distribution company.

Elisabeth Woodburn, Books. Catalogue #2 (New Series) - Seed & Nursery Catalogues. Hopewell, NJ: Elisabeth Woodburn, Books, January 1998. Catalog of important horticultural book dealer.

Elliott, Charles. "A. J. Downing, Garden Evangelist;" Horticulture, vLXXIII n9, Nov. 1995, pp 14-22. Downing's role as arbiter of taste.

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Annual Catalogue of Plants, Seeds, Trees, 1909.  San Francisco, CA: 1909. (Cat. 012950)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Ferry's Home Garden Catalogue.  San Francisco, CA: 1931. (Cat. 022551)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Morse's Garden Guide, 1915.  San Francisco, CA: 1915. (Cat. 015737)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Morse's Seeds Garden Guide, 1917 .  San Francisco, CA: 1917. (Cat. 016462)

Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Morse's Garden Guide, 1918.  San Francisco, CA: 1918. (Cat. 016422)

"Field, Henry;" The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Volume 47. Clifton, NJ: J. T. White, 1893-. Biography.

Fitzpatrick, John T. "An Overview of American Nursery and Seed Catalogues, 1771-1832;" Plants and People: The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife, Annual Proceedings, 24 and 25 June 1995; v20, 1996, pp 152-162. Reports on 21 representative catalogs published between 1771 and 1832. They are sources of information on plants, nurseries, and gardeners and give a record of what was being offered for sale at particular times and places.

Garden and Forest, v3, July 2, 1890, p 328. Obituary of Patrick Barry.

"George Ellwanger;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n22, Dec. 1, 1906, p 661. Obituary notice.

"George Ellwanger;" Proceedings of the Thirtieth Session of the American Pomological Society held on the exposition grounds at Jamestown, Virginia, Sept. 24-26, 1907. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1908. Obituary.

"Grant Thorburn;" The Gardener's Monthly and Horticultural Advertiser, vV, 1863, p 91. Obituary.

Hedrick, U. P. A History of Horticulture in America to 1860. Portland, OR: Timber Press, c 1988. A history of gardening, fruit growing, and viticulture. Plant explorers and botanic gardens, and plant breeding are covered.

Henderson, Alfred. Peter Henderson, Gardener, Author, Merchant: A Memoir. New York:  McIlroy & Emmet, 1890. Biography of Peter Henderson by his son.

Herringshaw, Thomas William, ed. Herringshaw's Encyclopedia of American Biography of the Nineteenth Century. Chicago, IL: American Publishers' Association, 1905. Grant Thorburn is listed.

Higginbotham, Julie S. "Four Centuries of Planting and Progress: A History of the U. S. Nursery Industry;" American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990, pp 36-59. Summarizes the U. S. nursery industry, from its pre-Colonial roots to 1990. Includes a chronology starting in 1565 to 1990.

Higginbotham, Julie S. "The Greening of a Continent;" American Nurseryman, v171 n12, Jun. 15, 1990, pp 62-63. Regional look at the nursery industry.

"The History of U. S. Floriculture;" Greenhouse Grower, v17 n10, Fall 1999, pp 28-37. History of Ball Seed Co., Goldsmith Seeds, Novartis Seeds, Bodger Seeds, Sakata Seed, Takii & Co., Benary Seed, Daehnfeldt, Waller Flowerseed, W. Atlee Burpee, Park Seed, Harris Seeds, Henry F. Michell Co., Grimes Seeds, Fred C. Gloeckner & Co., and Express Seed Co.

good crops seed packetHollingsworth, Buckner. "Theodosia Burr Shepherd, 1845-1906;" Her Garden was Her Delight. New York: Macmillan, 1962. Biography largely taken from an unpublished biography by Shepherd's daughter.

"The House of Thorburn, New York--An Interesting History;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n15, Oct. 13, 1906, p 441. History of Thorburn Co., New York, New York.

Hutton, R. J. "Robert Pyle--A Life Devoted to Roses;" The American Rose Magazine, vXXXI n20, Aug 1992, p 11. Biography of Pyle with emphasis on his work with the American Rose Society.

Ilgenfritz Nurseries, Inc. Monroe Nursery.  Ilgenfritz Garden Styles for '53.  Monroe, MI: 1953. (Cat. 021707)

Indiana Horticultural Society. Transactions of the Indiana Horticultural Society for the year 1908. Indianapolis: W. B. Burford, 1909. List of nurseries in Indiana on official inspection list for 1908. Biography of Andrew Hampton, pioneer nurseryman of Indiana.

"John Scheepers & Company, New York;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n19, Nov. 10, 1906. Brief history of John Scheepers & Co.

Kellen, Vince. "200 Years of the Right Stuff;" Florists' Review, v173 n4485, Nov. 17, 1983, pp 46-47. History of Landreth's, America's oldest seed company.

Keller, Kenneth W. "Merchandising Nature: The H. J. Weber and Sons Nursery," Missouri Historical Review, v89 n3, April 1995, pp 307-326. The author, a professor of history at Mary Baldwin College in Staunton, Virginia, is the great-grandson of Henry J. Weber.

Kelsey Nursery Service.  Safe Autumn Planting Catalog no. 166, 174, 178.  Highlands, NJ: 1960-1966. (cat. 024074-024076)

Kelsey Nursery Service.  Short Guide to the Best Varieties of Trees... Catalog no. 165, 167, 171, 173, 177, 179.  Highlands, NJ: 1960-1967. (cat. 024097-024102)

King, Louisa Yeomans. Pages from a garden note-book. New York: Scribner, 1921. Chapter XII is "A Review of the American Seed Catalogue." This chapter was written in 1916 as an article in a popular journal. There is mention of Vaughan; Dreer; Farquhar; Palisades Nurseries of Sparkill, New York; Peter Henderson; Burpee; Bobbink & Atkins; Michell's (of Philadelphia); John Lewis Childs; Henry Field of Shenandoah, Iowa; Weeber & Don of New York; Henry Dawson of Eastern Nurseries, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts; Moon of Morrisville, Pennsylvania; Hicks; Ellwanger and Barry; Klehm's Nurseries, Andorra Nurseries; Hill of Dundee, Illinois; California Nursery Company of Niles, California; Julius Roehrs; Good & Reese of Springfield, Ohio; Frederick H. Horsford of Charlotte, Vermont; Storrs & Harrison; Farr's of Wyomissing, Pennsylvania; E. G. Hill Company of Richmond, Indiana; Conard & Jones; etc.

Kraft, Ken. Garden to Order. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1963.
History of Burpee Co.

Kraft, Ken and Pat. "Seeds for Sale;" Country Living Gardener, v1 n1, Spring/Summer 1993, pp 30-31. How America's seed houses got their start.

"Landreth, Cuthbert;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

"Landreth, David;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

"Landreth, David, Jr.;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

Lees, Carlton B. "The Golden Age of Horticulture;" Historic Preservation, v24 n4, October-December 1972, pp 32-37. A discussion of horticulture in 19th century America.

Leighton, Ann. American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: "For Use or For Delight." Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976. Chapter 12 is titled "Catalogues and Lists." Information on John Bartram, William Prince, and Bernard M'Mahon.

Leighton, Ann. American Gardens in the Nineteenth Century: "For Comfort and Affluence." Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1987. Chapter 5 is titled "Seedsmen and Their Nurseries." Information on Bernard M'Mahon, Joseph Breck, Thomas and Alfred Bridgeman, Robert Buist, Thomas Meehan, Peter Henderson, Charles Mason and Phineas Brown Hovey.

"Lewis Chase;" Proceedings of the Thirty-third Biennial Session of the American Pomological Society held in Washington, D. C., November 17-21, 1913. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1914. Obituary.

"List of Nurserymen, Florists, and Seedsmen;" American Horticultural Annual, 1868, p159-164. A list of "only those who have sent circulars or business cards, and those who advertise in the horticultural journals."

Lowe, Jeannette. "Burpee's Celebrates Its Centennial, 1876-1976;" Flower & Garden, v20 n3, Mar. 1976, pp26-29, 45. History of the Burpee company by a staff horticulturist.

Mack, Richard N. "Catalog of Woes: Some of Our Most Troublesome Weeds Were Dispersed Through the Mail;" Natural History, Mar. 1990, pp 44-53. Article about weeds, but illustrated with old seed and nursery catalog covers.

"Made Wild by Pompous Catalogs;" American Horticulture, v70 n1, January 1991, p 1-2. In 1850, the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher protested the proliferation of posters, seed boxes, trade cards, and catalogs with lavish illustrations, thus the quote "made wild by pompous catalogs." A short history of illustrations in seed and nursery catalogs.

Mahurin, Carl. "Carl Purdy;" California Horticultural Society Journal, v2 n4, Oct. 1941, p 196-207. Biography.

Manks, Dorothy S. "How the American Nursery Trade Began;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967 (February 1968).
One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

The Mayflower. Floral Park, New York: Mayflower Pub. Co., 188?
John Lewis Childs was the owner and editor of this magazine.

McGourty, Frederick, Jr. "Long Island's Famous Nurseries;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967 (February 1968), pp 58-61, 82.
One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

McIntosh, W. H. History of Monroe County, New York: with Illustrations Descriptive of its Scenery, Palatial Residences, Public Buildings, Fine Blocks and Important Manufactories, from Original Sketches by Artists of the Highest Ability. Philadelphia: Everts, Ensign & Everts, 1877. History of Mount Hope Nurseries; James Vick, Seedsman and Florist with engravings of Vick's Flower Farm; and Briggs Seed House. Also history of artists and lithographers in Rochester, New York.

McKelvey, Blake. "The Flower City: Center of Nurseries and Fruit Orchards;" Rochester Historical Society Publications, v18 pt.2, 1940, pp 121-169. A history of the early nurseries in Rochester, New York and their contribution to the horticultural development of Western New York and to the rest of the world as well.

Meehan, S. Mendelson, ed. "A Brief Sketch of the Life of Thomas Meehan;" Meehans' Monthly, A Magazine of Horticulture, Botany and Kindred Subjects, Volume 12 , Jan. 1902, pp 13-19. Biography.

Mitich, Larry W. "The World of A. Blanc;" Cactus & Succlent Journal (U.S.), vXLV, 1973, pp158-170. Description of A. Blanc's interest in cactus and how his hobby eventually expanded into the world's largest cactus nursery.

Mitich, Larry W. "The World of A. Blanc, Part II;" Cactus & Succlent Journal (U.S.), vXLV, 1973, pp 203-213.

Mitich, Larry W. "The World of A. Blanc, Part III (conclusion);" Cactus & Succlent Journal (U.S.), vXLV, 1973, pp 259-269.

"M'Mahon, Bernard;" Dictionary of American Biography, Under the Auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies...  New York: C.Scribner's Sons, 1928-58.

Morey, Dick. "The Most Complete 'Hort' House in the U.S.A.: Vaughan-Jacklin Corporation...Beautify America Since 1876;" Nursery Business, v25 n4, April 1980, pp 50-51,54,68-69,76,80,94.
A history of this Chicago area company.

"Mrs. Theodosia B. Shepherd;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n12, Sep. 22, 1906, pp 346-347. Obituary notice and tribute.

Navlet, Arthur E. "Visiting the Flower Seed Farms of California;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vIX n2, Apr. 1948, pp 86-90. Visits of flower seed buyers are described.

Naylor, Harriett Julia. "Rochester's Agricultural Press: A Mirror of Genesee Country Life;" Rochester Historical Society Publications, v18 pt.2, 1940, pp 170-200. Some of Rochester's seedsmen and nurserymen were owners, editors or writers of Rochester's agricultural press, including Charles Crosman, James Vick, Joseph Harris, and Patrick Barry.

Neal, Steve. "David Burpee;" Dictionary of American Biography: Supplement 10 (1976-1980), 80-82. Biography.

Nguyen, Chris. "The Promise of Spring: Available by Mail Order;" Horizon: The Learning Section (The Washington Post), Wednesday, Jan. 10, 1996. History of the Burpee company.

Norcross, Marjorie R. "Cataloging America's Cultural Roots;" Cornell Plantations, v47 n1, 1992, pp15-22. A discussion of how American values were tied to American horticulture in seed catalogs. "To turn the pages of nineteenth century seed and nursery catalogs is to pursue a home course of art appreciation, ethics, politics, landscaping, domestic arts, and of course, horticulture."

"Nurserymen, Florists, Seedsmen, and Dealers in Horticultural Stock;" American Horticultural Annual, 1871, pp140-152
A list comprised of the "names of those who have sent us catalogues, etc., and those who advertise in the leading journals."

Oberle, Stephanie Ginsberg. "The Influence of Thomas Meehan on Horticulture in the United States;" Germantown Crier, v49 n1, Spring 1999, pp 4-25. Scholarly paper on Meehan with footnotes and photographs.

One hundred years of trust, 1884-1984. Minneapolis, MN: Northrup King Co., 1984. History of the Northrup King Co., one of the largest seed companies in the world, written for it=s centennial.

Orpet, Mildred Selfridge. "E. O. Orpet, Horticulturist;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vXIII n2, Apr. 1952, pp 39-52.
Biography.

Park's Floral Magazine. LaPark, Pennsylvania: Geo. W. Park, 1871-1925. George W. Park was editor and publisher of this magazine.

Parks, Dan. "The Cultivation of Flower City;" Rochester History, vXLV Nos. 3 & 4, Jul. and Oct. 1983, pp 25-47. The story of entrepreneurs in horticulture in Rochester, New York. Includes nurserymen: Naaman Goodsell, Asa Rowe, George Ellwanger and Patrick Barry; and seedsmen: James Vick, C. F. Crosman, Joseph Harris, Briggs Brothers, and William H. Reid.

"Patrick Barry;" Annals of Horticulture in North America for the Year 1890. New York: Rural Publishing Company, 1891. Obituary for Patrick Barry of the firm Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, New York.

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, Philadelphia. From Seed to Flower: Philadelphia, 1681-1876: A Horticultural Point of View. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1976. Exhibition catalog for an exhibition put together for the bicentennial. "...a display of books and artifacts written, published, and used by Philadelphians in the last half of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth centuries."

"Profile: David Burpee, President, W. Atlee Burpee Co.;" Delaware Valley Announcer, v36 n4, Apr. 1963, pp 25-26, 49. Biography.

"Prosper Julius A. Berckmans;" Proceedings of the Thirty-second Session of the American Pomological Society held at Tampa, Florida, February 9, 10 and 11, 1911. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1912.
Obituary.

Raver, Ann. "Where Burpee First Tilled;" The New York Times, Sunday, August 23, 1992. History of Burpee Co. and visit to Fordhook Farms with George C. Ball, owner of Burpee.

Reilly, Ann. "Lessons of the Farm: The David Burpee Story;" Nursery Business, v24 n1, Jan. 1979, pp50-52, 57, 65. History of W. Atlee Burpee Company and David Burpee's role in the company.

"Research Inspires 134-Year-Old Vegetable Giant;" Seed World, v128 n12, November 1990, pp21-23. A history of Ferry-Morse Seed Company.

Reynolds, George.  "Seedsmen to a Growing Country;" New York-Pennsylvania Collector, March 1990, pp 15C-17C.
The early history of the seed and nursery industry in Rochester, New York ("The Flower City").

"Robert Buist;" The Gardener's Monthly and Horticulturist, vXXII n264, December 1880, pp 372-374. An obituary of Robert Buist.

"Robert Scott;" Meehans' Monthly, A Magazine of Horticulture, Botany and Kindred Subjects, vVI, September 1896, pp178. An obituary of Robert Scott.

Rochester Directory of Nurserymen, Seedsmen and Florists of the United States and Canada: Giving Classified List of Names and Addresses, Alphabetically Arranged. Rochester, New York:
Rochester Lithographing Co., 1893-.

Rockwell, F. F. "Flowers for the Forty Million: An Interview with David Burpee by F. F. Rockwell;" Home Arts--Needlecraft, Jan. 1938. Burpee's work developing new flowers at his plant laboratories at Floradale, California, and Fordhook Farms, Doylestown, Pennsylvania.

Rogier, June M. Andersen Horticultural Library: the first 25 years. Chanhassen, MN: Andersen Horticultural Library, c1996. Two chapters on their seed and nursery catalog collection.

Rogier, June. "Catalogs Link Gardeners Across 2 Centuries;" Arboretum News, v17 n1, January-February 1998, pp 1,6.
A description of the collection of catalogs (200,000 items) in the Andersen Horticultural Library at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. Describes some Minnesota seedswomen's and nurserymen's catalogs.

Rust, David. "Among the Growers: Henry A. Dreer, Inc., Riverton, N. J.;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n18, Nov. 3, 1906, p 534.
The author's visit to the Dreer establishment.

Sarudy, Barbara Wells. Gardens and Gardening in the Chesapeake, 1700-1805. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
Chapter four is "Seeds and Plants" and has information on early seedsmen and nurserymen. Chapter ten has information on Bernard M'Mahon.

Sarudy, Barbara Wells. "Nurserymen and Seed Dealers in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake;" Journal of Garden History, v9 n3, July-September 1989, pp 111-117.

Sarudy, Barbara Wells. "South Carolina Seed Merchants and Nurserymen Before 1820;" Magnolia; Bulletin of the Southern Garden History Society, vVII n3 Winter 1992 p 6-10.

Saul, John A. "Tree Culture, or a Sketch of Nurseries in the District of Columbia;" Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D. C., v10, 1907, pp 38-62. A history of nurseries and nurserymen in the District of Columbia including the author's grandfather John Saul.

"Seed Trade in America--Before the ASTA;" Seed World, v121 n6, May 1983, pp 21-22. A history of the seed industry in America before the American Seed Trade Association which was established by C. W. Crosman of Rochester, New York.

corn - seed packetShepherd, Theodosia B.  ...California Flowers, Plants, Seeds, Bulbs, Palms, Orchids, Cacti.  Ventura-By-The-Sea, CA: 1895.  (Cat. 008830).

Sinclair, Ward. "Send Seeds: Why the relentless mail order seed catalogue is about as American a document as there is;" The Washington Post Magazine, April 6, 1986, pp 6-13. A description of the collection of trade catalogs at the National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland and the catalog seed business in America today.

Slosson, Elvenia, comp. Pioneer American Gardening. New York: Coward-McCann, 1951. A collection of American horticultural stories contributed by members of forty-one states with federated gardeners that form the National Council of State Garden Clubs.

"Some American Seedsmen and Nurserymen;' Annals of Horticulture in North America for the Year 1899. New York: Rural Publishing Company, 1890. List of catalogs that had been received in the editor's office during the year of 1899.

Steffek, Edwin F. "Robert Pyle;" Dictionary of American Biography: Supplement 5 (1951-1956), pp 555-556. Biography.

Success with Flowers. West Grove, Pennsylvania: The Dingee & Conard Co., Oct. 1890-June 1904. Alfred Fellenberg Conard and Charles Dingee were owners and editors.

Templin, L., & Sons.  Bargains in Seeds, Plants, Vines, Bulbs, Etc.  Calla, OH: 1898.  (Cat. 017690)

Templin, L., & Sons.  Templin's Ideal Seeds, Bulbs, Plants, Etc. 1903, 1904.  Calla, OH: 1903-1904.  (Cat. 011022-011023)

Terry, Dickson. The Stark Story: Stark Nurseries 150th Anniversary. St. Louis, MO: Missouri Historical Society, 1966.
History of Stark Brothers Nurseries and Orchards Company, Louisiana, Missouri.

"Theodore S. Hubbard;" Proceedings of the Thirtieth Session of the American Pomological Society held on the exposition grounds at Jamestown, Virginia, Sept. 24-26, 1907. Cleveland, Ohio: merican Pomological Society, 1908. Obituary.

"Thomas Meehan;" Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh Session of the American Pomological Society held in Buffalo, N. Y., Sept. 12-13, 1901. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1902.
Obituary. Thomas Meehan was the First Vice-President of the Society.

"Thomas Meehan, 19th Century Plantsman;" Plants & Gardens, v23 n3, Autumn 1967 (February 1968), pp 81, 85. One chapter in a special volume titled "Origins of American Horticulture."

"Thomas Volney Munson;" Proceedings of the Thirty-third Biennial Session of the American Pomological Society held in Washington, D. C., November 17-21, 1913. Cleveland, Ohio: American Pomological Society, 1914. Obituary.

Thorburn, Grant. Forty Years' Residence in America; or, the Doctrine of a Particular Providence Exemplified in the Life of Grant Thorburn. Written by Himself. Boston: Russell, Odiorne & Metcalf, 1834. "...whom in the name of wonder, has a better right to publish a man's life, than himself?" An autobiography.

Tice, Patricia M. Gardening in America, 1830-1910. Rochester, NY: The Strong Museum, 1984. "Gardening in America," an exhibit and a book presents the origins of American's love of gardening and their changing tastes in gardening.

"Tributes to the Late George Ellwanger;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n23, Dec. 8, 1906, p 695. Tributes from the daily papers of Rochester, New York.

Tucker, David M. Kitchen Gardening in America: A History. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, c1993. Chapter 6: Seed Catalogues and Straight Rows.

seed packet - RossTuten, James H. "David Burpee;" American National Biography, Volume 22. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Biography.

University of Rochester. Library Bulletin. vXXXV 1982.
Entire volume devoted to the seed and nursery business in Rochester, New York. History of Ellwanger & Barry company, biographies of Ellwanger and Barry, biography of Joseph Harris of Moreton Farm, and history of 19th century Rochester fruit and flower plates.

Van Pelt, Helen Dupuy. "Henderson Llewelling: Pacific Pioneer Nurseryman;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vVI n3, Jul. 1945, pp 273-274.

Van Ravenswaay, Charles. Drawn from nature: the botanical art of Joseph Prestele and his sons. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984. Biography of the artist and lithographer, Joseph Prestele and his sons. Information on James Vick and Prestele's work with nurserymen's plate books.

Van Ravenswaay, Charles. A Nineteenth-Century Garden. New York: Universe Books, 1977. Twelve color plates and 20 black-and-white illustrations from books carried by American nursery salesmen from the mid- to late-nineteenth century are used to tell the story of the history of the nursery business in America.

"The Victorian Lady and Her Flowers;" American Heritage, v29 n5, Aug./Sep. 1978, pp 99-103. Pictorial showing many trade catalog covers.

"A Visit to White Marsh, Md.;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n12, Sep. 22, 1906, p 350. Description of a day spent at the R. Vincent, Jr. & Sons establishment.

"W. W. Rawson & Co., Boston;" The Florists' Exchange, vXXII n21, Nov. 24, 1906, pp 620, 627, 631. Description of company with photographs of the flower seed department, general seed department, store and reading room and new dahlias.

Waldron, Webb. "Turnips or Tulips: Which Are You Planting?" The American Magazine, vCXV n3, Mar. 1933, pp 51, 138-142. How David Burpee has introduced new plants and kept the Burpee Company going.

Walls, Nina de Angeli. Trade Catalogs in the Hagley Museum and Library. Wilmington, DE: Hagley Museum and Library, 1987. A description of the trade catalog collection in the Hagley Library that includes more than 18,000 catalogs.

White, Katharine S. Onward and Upward in the Garden. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, c 1979. A collection of fourteen garden pieces written for The New Yorker by the wife of E. B. White. These articles were critical reviews of the literature of garden catalogs from 1958 to 1970.

Whitmore, Lynn. "Memories: A Seed Company Retrospective;" Seed World, v128 n8, July 1990, pp 9-25. Short histories of 23 American seed companies, and a history of the French company, Vilmorin, the world's oldest seed company.

Wickersham, Virginia V. "Field Trip to the Ferry Morse Co. and Sunset Magazine;" Journal of the California Horticultural Society, vXXII n4, Oct. 1961, pp151-152.

Wilson, Alex. "Selling Seeds and Plants;" The Occasional, 1988, pp11-17. Highlights seed and nursery catalogs as research tools. Exhibition from the collection of the Nova Scotia Museum.

Woodburn, Elisabeth. "Horticultural Heritage: The Influence of U. S. Nurserymen;" Agricultural Literature: Proud Heritage--Future Promise: A Bicentennial Symposium, September 24-26, 1975. Washington, DC: Associates of the National Agricultural Library: sold by the Graduate School Press, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, c 1977. Prince nursery, John Bartram, Bernard M'Mahon, David Landreth, Patrick Barry, Andrew Jackson Downing, Thomas Bridgeman, Robert Buist, Grant Thorburn, Thomas Hibbert, Joseph Breck, and Thomas Meehan are discussed.

Wright, Richardson Little. The Story of Gardening, from the Hanging Gardens of Babylon to the Hanging Gardens of New York. Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing Co., 1938. Chapter XIV is called "The Rise of Gardening in America" and has a section on "The Initial Nurserymen." Landreth, M'Mahon, Thorburn and Prince nursery are discussed.

Compiled by Marca L. Woodhams, Librarian, Horticulture Branch Smithsonian Institution Libraries 1999